krypted.com

Tiny Deathstars of Foulness

macOS has keychains. Sometimes they’re a thing. When they are you might want to delete them. Let’s say you have an admin account. You want to keep the keychains for that account, but remove all the others. For this, you could do a shell operator to extglob. Or you could do a quick while loop as follows:

ls /Users | grep -v "admin" | while read USERNAME do; rm -Rf "/Users/$USERNAME/Library/Keychains/*" done;

If you borrow this, be careful.

December 1st, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security

Tags: , , , ,

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The logs for Outlook are… Interesting… Diagnostics are difficult without logs. They used to be at ~/Library/Containers/com.microsoft.outlook/ Data/Library/Logs/ or

To enable logs, open Outlook and then click on Window and then click Sync Errors.

screen-shot-2016-11-29-at-2-37-56-pm

From there, click on the cogwheel and then check the box for “Turn on logging for troubleshooting”

screen-shot-2016-11-29-at-2-40-03-pm

Now go ahead and quit Outlook and open it again. When prompted, click “Leave Logging On” and then when you get errors, open the logs.

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Once enabled, you’ll see logs at ~/Library/Group Containers/UBF8T346G9.Office/OfficeLogging/. You can edit a maximum size for the log files using defaults to send a EWSMaxLogLength key to com.microsoft.Outlook using the following command:

defaults write ~/Library/Preferences/com.microsoft.Outlook EWSMaxLogLength 64

November 30th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Microsoft Exchange Server

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Given the increased reliance on XML in scripts and exchanging data, a number of different solutions leverage XML traversal options to get all the things done. We frequently use path to bring a file into a script or program, or accept input from STDIN. The most basic task that we then perform is simply selecting an item from that file or STDIN and then variabalizing it. One common tool that we use here is Path. XPath calls these objects nodes, and uses path expressions to select these nodes. A path expression is the path along the xml input that is followed to find a piece of data.

There are some pretty standard wildcards the can be used with xpath, where node() watches any node, * matches any element node, @* matches any attribute node, helping to constrain output.

Supported expressions include:

  • node: This is a text input that identifies the name of a node to start a relative search from – for example site would select all nodes in a structure with the name site
  • . Identifies the current node (kinda’ like pwd in a shell)
  • .. Starts at the parent of the current node – for example,
  • / Starts traversal from the root node – for example, /computer would select any nodes that falls underneath
  • /computer meaning that these are absolute paths
  • // Identifies the nodes in an XML structure that match a selection wherever they may be – for example
  • //computer would select all nodes that contain //computer and search for other expressions below those that you may identify such as: ‘xpath //computer/general/mac_address’
  • //* Selects everything
  • //computer/* Selects all the child element nodes of everything that starts with computer
  • @ Select an attribute in an XML structure – for example ‘xpath //computer/general/@’
  • [1] This predicate selects the first item (or whatever number is identified, so xpath
  • //computer[3]/general/mac_address would return with the mac address of the third computer
  • [@PATTERN] Constrains found sets, so ‘xpath //computer/general/[@mac_address]’ identifies all computers with an actual mac_address attribute
  • //[@PATTERN=VALUE] Constrains a found set to all items where the attribute contains the value, so ‘xpath //computer/general/[@mac_address=00]’ identifies all computers with an actual mac_address attribute that has the value of 00
  • //[@*] Selects only items with something in an attribute (non-null), so ‘xpath //computer/general/[@mac_address=@*] (btw, rather than use an =, you can use > or <)
  • | creates compound matches. So ‘xpath //computer/general/mac_address | //computer/general/name’ would grab the mac_address and name of every computer
  • [last()] Identifies the last item, so ‘xpath //computer[last()]/general/mac_address’ would return the last computer’s mac address
  • [last()-2] placing a negative number after the parenthesis identifies descending orders from the end of a found set – for example, //computer[last()-2] Selects the second to last computer

Overall, as you can see xpath really makes traversing XML structures simple. Other tools and languages have their own ways, but most are similar in syntax.

November 15th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Ubuntu

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I thought there might be an easier way to do this. So there’s this binary called serverrails that I assumed would install rails – no wait, actually it’s a ruby script that tells me to ‘gem install rails’ – which fails:

cat `which serverrails`
#!/usr/bin/ruby
# Stub rails command to load rails from Gems or print an error if not installed.
require 'rubygems'

version = ">= 0"
if ARGV.first =~ /^_(.*)_$/ and Gem::Version.correct? $1 then
version = $1
ARGV.shift
end

begin
gem 'railties', version or raise
rescue Exception
puts 'Rails is not currently installed on this system. To get the latest version, simply type:'
puts
puts ' $ sudo gem install rails'
puts
puts 'You can then rerun your "rails" command.'
exit 0
end

load Gem.bin_path('railties', 'rails', version)

Given that doesn’t work, we can just do this the old fashioned way… First let’s update rails to 2.2 or 2.2.4 using rvm, so grab the latest rvm and install it into /usr/local/rvm:

sudo curl -sSL https://get.rvm.io | bash -s stable --ruby

Then fire it up:

sudo source /etc/profile.d/rvm.sh

Then install the latest ruby:

sudo rvm install 2.2

Set it as default:

sudo rvm use 2.2 –default

Then run your gem install:

gem install rails

#thingsthatshouldbeautomatedandoddlyarenot

November 14th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , , , , ,

Recently, I got a strange message when trying to run a command:

You have exceeded the maximum number of shell sessions.

I’d seen a series of commands but never really needed to use them, so I ran:

shell_session_delete_expired

And viola, life was good. My command run. Of course, the next time I went to close the terminal correctly using the exit command. Upon doing so, I noticed:

logout
Saving session…
…copying shared history…
…saving history…truncating history files…
…completed.

[Process completed]

screen-shot-2016-11-06-at-2-30-34-pm

So, I opened a new shell and ran:

shell_session_update

And go the same result. Same with:

shell_session_save

Fun.

November 8th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security

Tags: , , , ,

25 minutes about TV
13 and 14 inch pros, 14% thinner and comes in at 4 pounds – that’s extreme! Also 12% thinner than a MacBook Air, and 13% less volume
67% Brighter
25% more colors
Core i7, Quad-core 2133MHz
4GB VRAM
3.1GB/s storage, up to 2TB, 50% faster storage
New thinner thermal architecture, quite
New Speakers, 2x dynamic range audio
130% 3d graphics
60% Gaming
57% Video Editor
Intel Iris Graphics
4 Thunderbolt 3 ports
100Gbps, all those ports can be USB, thunderbolt, etc – AND OMG a headphone jack

Phil didn’t iron his shirt
Function keys are now different
Force Touch Trackpad
2x larger
Butterfly switch mechanism, responsive and “a greater sense of keyboard travel”
Above the keyboard, we get no function keys, but instead gesture-driven responsive Touch Bar, that’s “application specific”
No escape key (it’s on the app bar)
Touch ID – Apple T1 Chip brings Secure Enclave to Mac
Dedicated Siri key, shown by HAIR FORCE ONE
Formatting controls for text
Predictive text and emoji on that bar, not sure if there’s one for Courage
The TV app
Fast user switching based on touch
“Fantastic finger work, Phil”
Touch Bar support on Terminal
Just mentioning Video editing again, showing FCP enhancements with touchID. Nice.
Creatives should love what was being demo’d

So as sysadmins:
Will the same policies available around TouchID via MDM be available for the Mac now?
The T1 is another step towards an iOS-centric OS. Secure Enclave means real crypto the way iOS does it.
Signed boot means you can now lock a device to IPSW-based images and use SIP to block ANY changes to /System.
Can you manage the Control Strip with an MDM policy
Expect toggling users on iPads with touch, eventually
IT Depts are going to have to stock so very much adapters, offsetting the smaller/lighter computer

October 27th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X

Stoked that we got to interview Michael Lynn (@mikeymikey) for the MacAdmins podcast. It turned out to be a great episode on the future of Mac management and MDM. I’m glad we were able to have him join in! Pepijn and Marcus did a great job as well, so all round, a great episode. Hope you enjoy!

Or find it on the Podcast site at http://podcast.macadmins.org/2016/10/24/episode-13-mdm-me-maybe/

October 24th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, MacAdmins Podcast

Tags: , , , , , ,

Automating OS installations is going to eventually be about as easy on macOS as it is in iOS (er, if you have MDM that is). But in the meantime, it’s getting a bit more challenging. The obvious way Apple would prefer this to happen these days is via the startosinstall command that first shipped with El Capitan and with brtool getting moved around all the time, and becoming less of a thing, there’s one quick and easy thing you can do:

sudo "/Applications/Install macOS Sierra.app/Contents/Resources/startosinstall" --applicationpath "/Applications/Install macOS Sierra.app" --agreetolicense --nointeraction --volume /Volumes/Macintosh\ HD

In the above command, we’ve dropped “Install macOS Sierra.app” on a machine. While you’d guess that it would find the application path based on its own surname, we went ahead and supplied it as that seems to basically be a thing. Basically, –agreetolicense keeps us from having to run some expect scripts to accept a license agreement, –nointeraction suppresses as many of the screens as possible, and –volume allows us to install to any volume we’d like. This isn’t fully automated, but I have been able to layer in some more logic to quit apps before the script fires and then expect out other items from the script to automate a restart, watching for osinstallersetupd as a key.

This is all a bit bulkier than just using something like createOSXinstallPkg but it’s important to mention that there are a number of system components that are allowed for in SIP that use osinstallersetupd and so this blessed mechanism is likely the future until you can trigger an OS upgrade (and update I suppose) using an MDM command.

October 23rd, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security

Tags: , , , , , , ,

macOS Server has long had a VPN service to allow client computers to connect to a network even when they’re out of the office. The server was once capable of running the two most commonly used VPN protocols: PPTP and L2TP. And while PPTP is still accessible via the command line, L2TP is now configured by default when you setup the server using the Server app.

Setting Up The VPN Service In OS X Server

To setup the VPN service, open the Server app and click on VPN in the Server app sidebar. The VPN Settings  screen has a number of options available, as seen here.

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The VPN Host Name field is used by administrators leveraging profiles. The setting used becomes the address for the VPN service in the Everyone profile. L2TP requires a shared secret or an SSL certificate. In this example, we’ll configure a shared secret by providing a password in the Shared Secret field. Additionally, there are three fields, each with an Edit button that allows for configuration:

  • Client Addresses: The dynamic pool of addresses provided when clients connect to the VPN.

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  • DNS Settings: The name servers used once a VPN client has connected to the server. As well as the Search Domains configuration.

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  • Routes: Select which interface (VPN or default interface of the client system) that a client connects to each IP address and subnet mask over.

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  • Save Configuration Profile: Use this button to export configuration profiles to a file, which can then be distributed to client systems (macOS using the profiles command, iOS using Apple Configurator or both using Profile Manager).
  • Shared Secret: A passphrase that must be supplied by the client prior to getting a username and password prompt.

Once configured, open incoming ports on the router/firewall. While deprecated(ish) PPTP runs over port 1723. L2TP is a bit more complicated, running over 1701, but also the IP-ESP protocol (IP Protocol 50). Both are configured automatically when using Apple AirPorts as gateway devices. Officially, the ports to forward are listed at http://support.apple.com/kb/TS1629.

Using The Command Line

I know, I’ve described ways to manage these services from the command line before. The serveradmin command can be used to manage the service as well as the Server app. The serveradmin command can start the service, using the default settings, with no further configuration being required:

sudo serveradmin start vpn

And to stop the service:

sudo serveradmin stop vpn

And to list the available options:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn

The output of which shows all of the VPN settings available via serveradmin (which is many more than what you see in the Server app:

vpn:vpnHost = "odr.krypted.com"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:Logfile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:VerboseLogging = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:MaximumSessions = 128
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedSearchDomains:_array_index:0 = "jamfsw.corp"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:0 = "10.10.16.200"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:1 = "10.1.16.20"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:2 = "8.8.8.8"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:0:SharedSecret = "1"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:0:Address = "1.1.1.1"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:1:SharedSecret = "2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:1:Address = "2.2.2.2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:EAP:KerberosServicePrincipalName = "vpn/odr.krypted.com@OSXSERVER.KRYPTED.COM"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:enabled = no
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Interface:SubType = "PPTP"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Interface:Type = "PPP"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:LCPEchoFailure = 5
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:DisconnectOnIdle = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:AuthenticatorEAPPlugins:_array_index:0 = "EAP-RSA"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:AuthenticatorACLPlugins:_array_index:0 = "DSACL"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:CCPEnabled = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:IPCPCompressionVJ = 0
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:ACSPEnabled = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:LCPEchoEnabled = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:LCPEchoInterval = 60
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:MPPEKeySize128 = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:AuthenticatorProtocol:_array_index:0 = "MSCHAP2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:MPPEKeySize40 = 0
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:AuthenticatorPlugins:_array_index:0 = "DSAuth"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:Logfile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:VerboseLogging = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:DisconnectOnIdleTimer = 7200
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:CCPProtocols:_array_index:0 = "MPPE"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:OfferedRouteMasks = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges:_array_index:0 = "10.10.23.255"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges:_array_index:1 = "10.10.23.254"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:OfferedRouteAddresses = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:OfferedRouteTypes = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:ConfigMethod = "Manual"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:LoadBalancingAddress = "1.2.3.4"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:MaximumSessions = 128
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:LoadBalancingEnabled = 0
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:Logfile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:VerboseLogging = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedSearchDomains:_array_index:0 = "jamfsw.corp"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:0 = "10.10.16.200"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:1 = "10.1.16.20"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index:2 = "8.8.8.8"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:0:SharedSecret = "1"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:0:Address = "1.1.1.1"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:1:SharedSecret = "2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Radius:Servers:_array_index:1:Address = "2.2.2.2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:EAP:KerberosServicePrincipalName = "vpn/odr.krypted.com@OSXSERVER.KRYPTED.COM"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled = yes
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Interface:SubType = "L2TP"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Interface:Type = "PPP"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:LCPEchoFailure = 5
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:DisconnectOnIdle = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:AuthenticatorEAPPlugins:_array_index:0 = "EAP-KRB"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:AuthenticatorACLPlugins:_array_index:0 = "DSACL"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:VerboseLogging = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:IPCPCompressionVJ = 0
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:ACSPEnabled = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:LCPEchoInterval = 60
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:LCPEchoEnabled = 1
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:AuthenticatorProtocol:_array_index:0 = "MSCHAP2"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:AuthenticatorPlugins:_array_index:0 = "DSAuth"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:Logfile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:DisconnectOnIdleTimer = 7200
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:SharedSecretEncryption = "Keychain"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:LocalIdentifier = ""
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:SharedSecret = "com.apple.ppp.l2tp"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:AuthenticationMethod = "SharedSecret"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:RemoteIdentifier = ""
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:IdentifierVerification = "None"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPSec:LocalCertificate = <>
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:OfferedRouteMasks = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges:_array_index:0 = "10.10.23.128"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges:_array_index:1 = "10.10.23.254"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:OfferedRouteAddresses = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:OfferedRouteTypes = _empty_array
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:IPv4:ConfigMethod = "Manual"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:L2TP:Transport = "IPSec"
vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:L2TP:IPSecSharedSecretValue = "Yq!XdGsVyAY?o;9jnj[X"

To disable L2TP, set vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled to no:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled = no

To configure how long a client can be idle prior to being disconnected:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:DisconnectOnIdle = 10

By default, each protocol has a maximum of 128 sessions, configureable using vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:MaximumSessions:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:MaximumSessions = 200

To see the state of the service, the pid, the time the service was configured, the path to the log files, the number of clients and other information, use the fullstatus option:

sudo serveradmin fullstatus vpn

Which returns output similar to the following:

vpn:servicePortsAreRestricted = "NO"
vpn:readWriteSettingsVersion = 1
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:AuthenticationProtocol = "MSCHAP2"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:CurrentConnections = 0
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:enabled = yes
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:MPPEKeySize = "MPPEKeySize128"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Type = "PPP"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:SubType = "PPTP"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:AuthenticatorPlugins = "DSAuth"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:AuthenticationProtocol = "MSCHAP2"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Type = "PPP"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled = yes
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:CurrentConnections = 0
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:SubType = "L2TP"
vpn:servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:AuthenticatorPlugins = "DSAuth"
vpn:servicePortsRestrictionInfo = _empty_array
vpn:health = _empty_dictionary
vpn:logPaths:vpnLog = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
vpn:configured = yes
vpn:state = "STOPPED"
vpn:setStateVersion = 1

Security folk will be stoked to see that the shared secret is shown in the clear using:

vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:L2TP:IPSecSharedSecretValue

Configuring Users For VPN Access

Each account that accesses the VPN server needs a valid account to do so. To configure existing users to use the service, click on Users in the Server app sidebar.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-14-23-pm

At the list of users, click on a user and then click on the cog wheel icon, selecting Edit Access to Services.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-14-44-pm

At the Service Access screen will be a list of services that could be hosted on the server; verify the checkbox for VPN is highlighted for the user. If not, click Manage Service Access, click Manage and then check the VPN box.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-15-02-pm

Setting Up Client Computers

As you can see, configuring the VPN service in macOS Server 5.2 (running on Sierra) is a simple and straight-forward process – much easier than eating your cereal with a fork and doing your homework in the dark.. Configuring clients is as simple as importing the profile generated by the service. However, you can also configure clients manually. To do so on a Mac, open the Network System Preference pane. From here, click on the plus sign (“+”) to add a new network service.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-17-20-pm

At the prompt, select VPN in the Interface field and then either PPTP or L2TP over IPSec in the VPN Type. Then provide a name for the connection in the Service Name field and click on Create.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-18-33-pm

At the list of network interfaces in the Network System Preference pane, provide the hostname or address of the server in the Server Address field and the username that will be connecting to the VPN service in the Account Name field. If using L2TP, click on Authentication Settings.

screen-shot-2016-09-29-at-9-18-05-pm

At the prompt, provide the password entered into the Shared Secret field earlier in this article in the Machine Authentication Shared Secret field and the user’s password in the User Authentication Password field. When you’re done, click OK and then provided you’re outside the network and routeable to the server, click on Connect to test the connection.

Conclusion

Setting Up the VPN service in macOS Server 5.2 is as simple as clicking the ON button. But much more information about using a VPN can be required. The natd binary is still built into OS X at /usr/sbin/natd and can be managed in a number of ways. And if you’re using an Apple AirPort as a router (hopefully in a very small environment) then the whole process of setting this thing up should be super-simple.

October 16th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security

Tags: , , , , , , ,

The Time Machine service in macOS Server 5.2 hasn’t changed much from the service in previous operating systems. To enable the Time Machine service, open the Server app, click on Time Machine in the SERVICES sidebar. If the service hasn’t been enabled to date, the ON/OFF switch will be in the OFF position and no “Backup destination” will be shown in the Settings pane.

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Click on the ON button to see the New Destination screen, used to configure a list of volumes as a destinations for Time Machine backups. The selection volume should be large enough to have space for all of the users that can potentially use the Time Machine service hosted on the server. When you click the Choose button, a list of volumes appears in a standard Finder selection screen.

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Here, click on the volume to save your backups to in the sidebar. In most cases the Backup destination will be a mass storage device and not the boot volume of the computer. Once selected, click Choose and then if desired, limit the amount of storage on the volume to be used for backups. Click Create and a share called Backups is created and the service will start. Don’t touch anything until the service starts. Once started, add a backup destination at any time using the plus sign button (“+”) and defining another destination.

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Time Machine Server works via Bonjour. Open the Time Machine System Preference pane and then click on the Select Backup Disk button from a client to see the server in the list of available targets, much as you would do with an Apple Time Capsule.

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Under the hood, a backup share is creating in the file sharing service. To see the attributes of this share, use the serveradmin command followed by the settings option and then the sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:, so for a path of /Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups use:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups

The output indicates the options configured for the share, including how locking is handled, guest access disabled, generated identifiers and the protocols the backups share listens as:

sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:name = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isTimeMachineBackup = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "F4610C2C-70CD-47CF-A75B-3BAFB26D9EF3"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isIndexingEnabled = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:mountedOnPath = "/Volumes/New Volume 1"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeStandard\:GeneratedUID = "FAB13586-2A2A-4DB2-97C7-FDD2D747A0CD"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsShared = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbDirectoryMask = "755"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbCreateMask = "644"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:ftpName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:timeMachineBackupUUID = "844A1C43-61C9-4F99-91DE-C105EA95BD45"

Once the service is running, administrators frequently fill up the target volume. To move data to another location, first stop the service and then move the folder (e.g. using mv). Once moved, use the serveradmin command to send settings to the new backup path. For example, to change the target to /Volumes/bighonkindisk, use the following command:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/bighonkindisk"

Another way to see the share and attributes of the share is through the sharing command:

sharing -l

Which should show output similar to the following:

List of Share Points
name: Backups
path: /Shared Items/Backups
afp: {
name: Backups
shared: 1
guest access: 0
inherit perms: 0
}
ftp: {
name: Backups
shared: 0
guest access: 0
}
smb: {
name: Backups
shared: 0
guest access: 0
}

There’s also a Bonjour service published that announces to other clients on the same subnet that the server can be used as a backup destination (the same technology used in a Time Capsule). One major update from back in Mavericks Server is the addition of the timemachine service in the severadmin command line interface. To see the command line settings for Time Machine:

sudo serveradmin settings timemachine

The output shows that share info is displayed as with the sharing service, but you can also see the GUID assigned to each share that is a part of the backup pool of storage:

timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeStandard\:GeneratedUID = "FAB13586-2A2A-4DB2-97C7-FDD2D747A0CD"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbDirectoryMask = "755"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbCreateMask = "644"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:name = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:ftpName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsShared = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsShared = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:timeMachineBackupUUID = "844A1C43-61C9-4F99-91DE-C105EA95BD45"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isTimeMachineBackup = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:backupQuota = 0
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "F4610C2C-70CD-47CF-A75B-3BAFB26D9EF3"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isIndexingEnabled = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:mountedOnPath = "/Volumes/New Volume 1"
Additionally you can also query for the service to verify it’s running using full status:
sudo serveradmin fullstatus timemachine
Which outputs something similar to the following:
timemachine:command = "getState"
timemachine:state = "RUNNING"

While I found plenty to ramble on about in this article, Mass deployment is still the same, as is client side configuration.

October 15th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Time Machine

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

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