krypted.com

Tiny Deathstars of Foulness

Recently someone asked me about accepting bash inputs. So I decided to take a stab at writing a little about it up. For the initial one we’ll look at accepting text input. Here, we’ll just sandwich a read statement between two echo commands. In the first echo we’ll ask for a name of a variable. Then we’ll read it in with the read command. And in the second echo we’ll write it out. Using the variable involves using the string of the variable (myvariable in this case) with a dollar sign in front of it, as in $myvariable below: echo "Please choose a number: " read myvariable echo "You picked $myvariable" Read also has a number of flags available to it:
  • -a assigns sequential indexes of the array variable
  • -d sets a delimiter to terminate the input
  • -e accepts the line.
  • -n returns after reading a specified number of characters
  • -p prompts without a trailing newline, before attempting to read any input
  • -r doesn’t use a backslash as an escape character
  • -s runs silent, which doesn’t echo text
  • -t: causes read to time out (number of seconds is right after the -t)
  • -u reads input from a file descriptor
Next, we’ll build on that read statement (note the addition of -p) and use a while to force a user to input a y or n and then parse their selection with a basic case statement: while true; do read -p "Do you wish to continue?" yn case $yn in [Yy]* ) echo "Add your action here"; break;; [Nn]* ) exit;; * ) echo "Please answer yes or no.";; esac done Finally, let’s look at positional parameters. Here, you can feed them at the tail end of the script, as words that are separated by spaces after the name of the script. Here, we simply just echo $0, which is the first position (aka – the name of the script you just ran) and $1 and $2 as the next two. #!/bin/bash echo "You Used These" echo '$0 = ' $0 echo '$1 = ' $1 echo '$2 = ' $2 You could also take $3, $4, etc. This is different than writing flags, which requires a bit more scripting. So if you called the script with: /path/to/script/pospar.sh test1 You would see: You Used These $0 = ./pospar.sh $1 = test1 What tips/additions do you have?

February 14th, 2017

Posted In: bash, Unix

Tags: , , , , , ,

You can easily accept user provided input in bash by using the read command in bash for Linux and OS X. Here, we’ll echo out a choice to a user in a script, read the output into a variable called yn and then echo out the response: echo "Please enter y or n: " read yn echo "You chose wrong: $yn" Here, we used echo to simply write out what was chosen in the input. But we could also take this a little further and leverage a case statement to then run an action based on the choice selected: read -p "Should the file extension change warning be disabled (y/n)? " yn case ${yn:0:1} in y|Y ) defaults write com.apple.finder FXEnableExtensionChangeWarning -bool false echo "The warning has been disabled" ;; * ) defaults write com.apple.finder FXEnableExtensionChangeWarning -bool true echo "The warning has been enabled" ;; esac The options when scripting are pretty much infinite and chances are, if you’ve written any scripts, you’ll know of a better way to do this than how I’ve always done it. One of the great things about scripting is the fact that there’s always a better way. So feel free to throw any of your examples into the comments!

July 28th, 2015

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Ubuntu, Unix

Tags: , , , , , , , ,

When running commands that are going to take awhile, I frequently start them with the nohup command, disown the command from the current session or queue them for later execution. The reason is that if I’m running them from a Terminal or SSH session and the session is broken I want to make sure they complete. To schedule a job for later execution, use at. For example, if I want to perform a simple command, I can schedule it in a minute by running it as an echo piped to at: echo "goldengirlsfix.sh" | at now + 2 minutes Note, if using 1 minute, you’ll need that to be singular. But you can also disown the job. To do so, end a command with an & symbol. So, running a command or script that will take awhile with an ampersand at the end displays the job number for the command and then you can disown it by running disown followed by -h at the end. for example: du -d 0 & disown -h If you choose not to disown the job, you can check running jobs using the jobs command at any time: jobs Nohup runs a command or script in the background even after a shell has been stopped: nohup cvfsck -nv goldengirls & The above command runs the command between nohup and the & symbol in the background. By default, you’ll then have the output to the command run in the nohup.out file in your home directory. So if your username were krypted, you could tail the output using the following command: tail -f /Users/krypted/nohup.out You can also use screen and then reconnect to that screen. For example, use screen with a -t to create a new screen: screen -t sanconfigchange Then run a command: xsanctl sanConfigChanged Then later, reconnect to your screen: screen -x And you can control-n or control-a to scroll through running background processes this way, provided each is in its own screen. Finally, in AIX you can actually use the bg command. I used to really like this as I could basically move an existing job into the background if I’d already invoked it from a screen/session. For example, you have pid 88909 running and you want to put it into the background. You can just run bg 88909 and throw it into the background, allowing you to close a tty. But then if you’d like to look at it later, you can always pop it back using, you guessed it, fg. This only worked in AIX really, but is a great process management tool.

January 6th, 2014

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment, Ubuntu, Unix, VMware, Xsan

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

Go figure, there’s a command that can convert some units to other units. The units command is able to take a number of one type of units and then convert them to another. For example, to convert a mile to feet: units "1 mile" feet Or to convert 2 hours to seconds: units "2 hours" seconds For a full listing of the formats supported, check out /usr/share/misc/units.lib.

September 23rd, 2013

Posted In: Mac OS X

Tags: , , , , , , ,

I can’t stand it when I open terminal and go to cd into a directory I know to exist only to be confused by why using the tab doesn’t autocomplete my command. For those that don’t know, when you are using any modern command line interface, when you’re indicating a location in a file system, the tab key will autocomplete what you are typing. So let’s say you’re going to /System. I usually just type cd /Sys and then use the tab to autocomplete. In many cases, the first three letters, followed by a tab will get you there and you can therefore traverse deep into a filesystem in a few simple keystrokes. But then there’s all this case weirdness with a lot of the more Apple-centric stuff in the file system. For example, when it’s FileSystem vs. Filesystem vs. filesystem. This makes sense when using a partitioning scheme that allows for case-based namespace collisions, but not in HFS+ (Journaled), the default format used with Mac OS X. So I find myself frequently editing the .inputrc file. This file can be used to do a number of cool tricks in a terminal session, but the most useful for many is to take the case sensitivity away from tab auto-completes, effectively de-pony-tailing the sensitive pony-tail boy. To do so, create the hidden .inputrc file in your home folder: touch ~/.inputrc Then open it with your favorite text editor and add this line: set completion-ignore-case on Then save and close. Open a new terminal window and you should be able to tab auto-complete whether or not you have the case right. Try it with /sys-TAB instead of /Sys-TAB. Best of all, as you sudo the behavior follows your session (including sudo bash). However, if you su the behavior does not follow your session. Enjoy and may the pinky that is ever reaching for that shift key thank you as it gets a bit more rest in the next few days than in the last few… Oh, to turn it back off either toss your .inputrc file (if you don’t have any other parameters in there) or just set the final word of the line to no

June 8th, 2011

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Unix

Tags: , , , , , , ,