Tag Archives: SMB

Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security

Yosemite and statshares in smbutil

The statshares option has an -m option to look at a mount path for showing the path to the mount (e.g. if the mount is called krypted this should be something like /Volumes/krypted):

smbutil statshares -m /Volumes/krypted

When run, you see a list of all the attributes OS X tracks for that mount path, including the name of the server, the user ID (octal), how SMB negotiated an authentication, what version of SMB is running (e.g. SMB_1), the type of share and whether signing, extended security, Unix and large files are supported.

Additionally, if you’d like to see the attributes for all shares, use the -a option after statshares:

smbutil statshares -a

Overall, this is a nice health check type of verb for the smbutil command that can be added to any monitoring or troubleshooting workflow. Other verbs for smbutil include lookup, status, view, and identity. All are very helpful in troubleshooting connections to smb targets.

Mac OS X Server Windows Server Windows XP

Yosemite Server SMB and Windows

A few people have hit me up about issues getting Windows machines to play nice with the SMB built into Yosemite Server and Windows. Basically, the authentication dialog keeps coming up even when a Mac can connect. So there are two potential issues that you might run into here. The first is that the authentication method is not supported. Here, you want to enable only the one(s) required. NTLMv2 should be enabled by default, so try ntlm:

sudo serveradmin settings smb:ntlm auth = "yes"

If that doesn’t work (older and by older I mean old as hell versions of Windows), try Lanman:

sudo serveradmin settings smb:lanman auth = “yes"

The second is that the authentication string (can be seen in wireshark) doesn’t include the workgroup/domain. To resolve this, simply include the Server name or workgroup in the beginning of the username followed by a backslash(\). So you might do this as a username if your NetBios name were kryptedserver:

kryptedserver\charles

To get that exact name, use serveradmin again, to look at the smb:NetBIOSName attribute:

smb:NetBIOSName = "kryptedserver"

iPhone Mac OS X Mac OS X Server

Manage File Shares In OS X Yosemite Server

File Services are perhaps the most important aspect of any server because file servers are often the first server an organization purchases. This has been changing over the past few years, with many a file being hosted by cloud solutions, such as Box, Dropbox, Google Drive, and of course, iCloud. But many still need a terrestrial server and for predominantly Apple environments, a Server app running on OS X Yosemite isn’t exactly a bad idea. There are a number of protocols built into OS X Yosemite Server dedicated to serving files, including AFP, SMB and WebDAV. These services, combined comprise the File Sharing service in OS X Yosemite running the Server app.

Note: I’ve got another article looking into FTP a little further but those are basically what I’ll stick to here.

File servers have shares. In OS X Yosemite Server we refer to these as Share Points. By default:

• File Sharing has some built-in Share Points that not all environments will require.
• Each of these shares is also served by AFP and SMB, something else you might not want (many purely Mac environments might not even need SMB). Or if you have iOS devices, you may only require WebDAV sharing.
• Each share has permissions that Apple provides which will work for some but not all.

In short, the default configuration probably isn’t going to work for everyone. Therefore, before we do anything else, let’s edit the shares to make them secure. The first step is to create all of your users and groups (or at least the ones that will get permissions to the shares). This is done in Server app using the Users and Groups entries in the List Pane. Once users and groups are created, open the Server app and then click on the File Sharing service in the SERVICES list in the List Pane. Here, you will see a list of the shares on the server.

Files1

If you’re just getting started, let’s go ahead and disable the built-in share by clicking on Groups in the list of shares and then clicking on the minus button on the screen.

As mentioned, shares can be shared out using different protocols. Next, we’re going to disable SMB for Public, simply as an example. To do so, double-click on Public and then uncheck the SMB protocol checkbox for the share.

Files2

When you’ve disabled SMB, click on the Done button to save the changes to the server. Editing shares is really that easy. Next, we’re going to create a new share for iPads to be able to put their work, above and beyond the WebDAV instance automatically used by the Wiki service. To create the share, first we’re going to create a directory for the share to live in on the computer, in this case in the /Shared Items/iPads directory.

Files3

Then from the File Sharing pane in Server app, click on the plus sign (“+”).

Files4

At the browse dialog, browse to the location of your iPad directory and then click on the Choose button.

Files5

At the File Sharing pane, double-click on the new iPads share. Note that there’s a new checkbox here called Encrypt connections. If you check this, you cannot use AFP and WebDAV.

Files6

At the screen for the iPads share, feel free to edit the name of the share (how it appears to users) as it by default uses the name of the directory for the name of the share. Then, it’s time to configure who has access to what on the share. Here, use the plus sign (“+”) in the Access section of the pane to add groups that should be able to have permission to access the share. Also, change the groups in the list that should have access by double-clicking on the name of the group and providing a new group name or clicking on the plus sign to add a user or group.

Files7

The permissions available in this screen for users that are added are Read & Write, Read Only/Read and Write. POSIX permissions (the bottom three entries) also have the option for No Access, but ACLs (the top entries comprise an Access Control List) don’t need such an option as if there is no ACE (Access Control Entry) for the object then No Access is assumed.

If more granular permissions are required then click on the name of the server in the Server app (the top item in the List Pane) and click on the Storage tab. Here, browse to the directory and click on Edit Permissions.

Files8

As can be seen, there are a number of other options that more granularly allow you to control permissions to files and directories in this view. If you make a share a home folder, you can use that share to store a home folder for a user account provided the server uses Open Directory. Once a share has been made an option for home folders it appears in both Workgroup Manager and the Server app as an available Home Folder location for users in that directory service.

Once you have created all the appropriate shares, deleted all the shares you no longer need and configured the appropriate permissions for the share, click on the ON button to start the File Sharing service.

Files9

To connect to a share, use the Connect to Server dialog, available by clicking Connect to Server in the Go menu. A change that happened back in Mavericks is that when you enter an address, the client connects over SMB by default (which is even better now that those connections can be encrypted). If you’d like to connect via AFP ‘cause you’re all old school, enter afp:// in front of the address and then click Connect.

The File Sharing service can also be controlled from the command line. Mac OS X Server provides the sharing command. You can create, delete and augment information for share points using sharing. To create a share point for AFP you can use the following command:

sharing -a -A

So let’s say you have a directory at /Shares/Public and you want to create a share point called PUBLIC. You can use the following command:

sharing -a /Shares/Public -A PUBLIC

Now, the -a here will create the share for AFP but what if you want to create a share for other protocols? Well, -F does FTP and -S does SMB. Once created you can disable the share using the following command:

sharing -r PUBLIC

To then get a listing of shares you can use the following command:

sharing -l

You can also use the serveradmin command to manage file shares as well as the sharing service. To see settings for file shares, use the serveradmin command along with the settings option and then define the sharing service:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing

Sharing settings include the following:

sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbName = "iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:webDAVName = "iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbEncrypted = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbDirectoryMask = "0755"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:afpName = "iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbCreateMask = "0644"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:path = "/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbUseStrictLocking = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:name = "iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbInheritPermissions = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:ftpName = "iPads"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:afpIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:smbUseOplocks = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:webDAVIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "E500829F-6589-4A34-9D3B-C7FDC71400B4"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:mountedOnPath = "/"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/Macintosh HD/Shared Items/iPads:isIndexingEnabled = no

To see settings for the services use the serveradmin command with the settings option followed by the services: afp and smb:

sudo serveradmin settings afp

AFP settings include:

afp:maxGuests = -1
afp:afpTCPPort = 548
afp:clientSleepTime = 24
afp:replyCacheQuantum = 32
afp:maxConnections = -1
afp:sendGreetingOnce = no
afp:reconnectTTLInMin = 1440
afp:clientSleepOnOff = yes
afp:loginGreeting = ""
afp:errorLogPath = "/Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceError.log"
afp:errorLogTime = 0
afp:activityLogTime = 7
afp:errorLogSize = 1000
afp:kerberosPrincipal = "afpserver/LKDC:SHA1.5776019F497F854DBA581884DE3A1AC7BBF69E22@LKDC:SHA1.5776019F497F854DBA581884DE3A1AC7BBF69E22"
afp:recon1SrvrKeyTTLHrs = 168
afp:idleDisconnectOnOff = no
afp:reconnectFlag = "no_admin_kills"
afp:activityLog = yes
afp:reconnectKeyLocation = "/private/etc/AFP.conf"
afp:loginGreetingTime = 1315436086
afp:adminGetsSp = yes
afp:fullServerMode = yes
afp:idleDisconnectMsg = ""
afp:updateHomeDirQuota = yes
afp:activityLogPath = "/Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceAccess.log"
afp:authenticationMode = "standard_and_kerberos"
afp:admin31GetsSp = no
afp:shutdownThreshold = 3
afp:TCPQuantum = 1048576
afp:allowSendMessage = yes
afp:idleDisconnectTime = 10
afp:loggingAttributes:logOpenFork = yes
afp:loggingAttributes:logDelete = yes
afp:loggingAttributes:logCreateDir = yes
afp:loggingAttributes:logLogin = yes
afp:loggingAttributes:logLogout = yes
afp:loggingAttributes:logCreateFile = yes
afp:tickleTime = 30
afp:specialAdminPrivs = no
afp:noNetworkUsers = no
afp:idleDisconnectFlag:adminUsers = yes
afp:idleDisconnectFlag:registeredUsers = yes
afp:idleDisconnectFlag:usersWithOpenFiles = yes
afp:idleDisconnectFlag:guestUsers = yes
afp:recon1TokenTTLMins = 10080
afp:guestAccess = yes
afp:allowRootLogin = no
afp:activityLogSize = 1000
afp:afpServerEncoding = 0
afp:createHomeDir = yes

To see a run-down of some of the options for afp, see this article I did previously. Additionally, for a run-down of smb options, see this one.

iPhone Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security Mass Deployment Microsoft Exchange Server Network Infrastructure Ubuntu Unix VMware

Quick nmap Hacks

The nmap application is a pretty easy-to-use tool that can be used to port scan objects in a network environment. To obtain mmap in an easy-to-use package installer, for OS X check out the download page at http://nmap.org/download.html#macosx (use the same page to grab it for Windows or *nix as well). Once downloaded run the package/rpm/whatever.

Before I scan a system, I like to pull the routing table and eth info to determine how scans are being run, which can be run by using the mmap command anong with the —iflist option:

nmap —iflist

Basic Scanning
To then scan a computer, just use the mmap command followed by the host name or even throw a -v option in there to see more information (you can use a hostname or an IP):

nmap -v www.apple.com

Use the -6 option if scanning via IPv6:

nmap -v -6 8a33:1a2c::83::1a

Can drop the -v for less info on these, but I usually like more than less. Shows ports, states, services (for the ports) and a MAC address for each IP being scanned.

You can also scan a range of IPs. I usually take the lazy way for this, by using a wildcard. I can replace an octet to scan all objects in that octet. For example, to scan all systems running on the 192.168.210 class B:

nmap 192.168.210.*

You can scan a subnet, which can cover more or less than one octet worth of IPs, by including the net mask:

nmap 192.168.210.0/24

You can also just list a range, which is much easier in some cases, using the —exclude option to remove an address that will be angry if port scanned:

nmap 192.168.210.1-100 —exclude 192.168.210.25

Or to do a few hosts within that range:

nmap 192.168.210.1,10,254

Of you can even use the following to read in a list of addresses and subnets where each is on its own line:

nmap -iL ~/nmaplist.txt

By default, mmap is scanning all ports. However, if you know what you’re looking for, scans can be processed much faster if you constrain it to a port or range of ports. Use the -p option to identify a port and then T: for only TCP or U: for only UDP, or neither to do both. Additionally, you can scan a range of ports or separate ports using the same syntax used for identifying multiple hosts. For example, here we’ll scan 53, 80, 110, 443 and 143:

nmap -p 53,80,110,143,443

DO OS detection using the -A option:

nmap -A www.apple.com

For true remote OS detection, use -O with —osscan-guess:

mmap -v -O —osscan-guess mail.krypted.com

We can also output to a text file, using the -o option (or of course > filename but -o is more elegant here unless you’re parsing elsewhere in the line):

mmap -v -o ~/Desktop/nmapresults.txt -O —osscan-guess mail.krypted.com

Firewalls
Next, we’ll look at trying to bypass pesky annoyances like stageful packet inspection on firewalls. First, check whether there is actually a firewall using -s:

nmap -sA www.apple.com

Scan even if the host is protected by a firewall:

nmap -PN www.apple.com

Just check to see if some devices are up even if behind a firewall:

nmap -sP 192.168.210.10-20

Run a scan using Syn and ACK scans, run mmap along with the either -PS or -PA options (shown respectively):

nmap -PS 443 www.apple.com
nmap -PA 443 www.apple.com

Try to determine why ports are in a specific state:

nmap —reason www.apple.com

Show all sent/recvd packets:

nmap —packet-trace www.apple.com

Try to read the header of remote ports to determine a version number of the software:

nmap -sV www.apple.com

Security Scanning
Next, we can look at actually using nmap to test the attacking waters a little bit. First, we’ll try and spoof another MAC address, using the —spoof-mac options. We’ll use the 0 position after that option to indicate that we’re randomly generating a Mac, although we could use a real MAC in place of the 0:

nmap -v -sT —spoof-mac 0 www.apple.com

Next, let’s try to add a decoy, which allows us to spoof some IPs and use that as decoys so our target doesn’t suspect our IP as one that’s actually scanning them (note that our IP we’re testing from is 192.168.210.210):

nmap -n -192.168.210.1,192.168.210.10,192.168.210.210,192.168.210.254

Then, send some crazy packets (not an official term like magic packets, just my own term for throwing a curve ball at things and testing for the viability of syn-flood or Xmas packet attacking):

nmap -sX www.apple.com

Configure a custom mtu:

nmap —mtu 64 www.apple.com

Fragment your packets:

nmap -f www.apple.com

Note: None of Apple’s servers were damaged in the writing of this article. I did a find/replace at the end, when I realized I didn’t want all of you hitting www.krypted.com.

Windows Server Windows XP

Net Stats & Windows Server

Windows Server tracks the sessions that have been authenticated into the system, those that have been timed out, those that have errored, kb sent/received, response time, errors, permission problems, password problems, files opened, print job spooling and buffers quickly and easily. Simply use the net command we’ve all been using for 20 years, followed by stats or statistics:

net statistics

When prompted choose server or workstation. In this case, we’ll use Server.

net statistics Server

Here’s the output from a new server:

Screen Shot 2013-12-01 at 11.21.50 PM

And if you’re trying to troubleshoot client/server communications, keep in mind that you can look at much of this on the workstation side as well, but from the client perspective:

net statistics Workstation

Screen Shot 2013-12-01 at 11.23.34 PM

Mac OS X

AFP IS NOT GONE!!!

Sorry for shouting. I keep hearing people mention that they can’t upgrade to OS X Mavericks, or Mavericks Server because they need AFP. Well, the change that came in Mavericks isn’t that AFP was deprecated. Maybe it doesn’t get to call shotgun any more when running out to the car, but it’s still there.

The sharing output, which shows afp:

List of Share Points
name: Charles Edge’s Public Folder
path: /Users/krypted/Public
afp: {
name: Charles Edge’s Public Folder
shared: 1
guest access: 1
inherit perms: 0
}

The Connect to Server over afp:

Screen Shot 2013-10-24 at 11.06.42 AM

SMB is now the default protocol. Therefore, if you open a Connect to Server dialog and don’t prefix the string with afp:// then you will automagically connect over smb. Either way, we can clearly see more development is going into SMB than afp. However, afp isn’t dead yet. Sure, badly burned, shot in the arm, broken leg, etc.

Uncategorized

Configure A Mavericks File Server

File Services are perhaps the most important aspect of any server because file servers are often the first server an organization purchases. There are a number of protocols built into OS X Mavericks Server dedicated to serving files, including AFP, SMB and WebDAV. These services, combined comprise the File Sharing service in OS X Mavericks Server (Server 3).

File servers have shares. In OS X Mavericks Server we refer to these as Share Points. By default:

  • File Sharing has some built-in Share Points that not all environments will require.
  • Each of these shares is also served by AFP and SMB, something else you might not want (many purely Mac environments might not even need SMB). Or if you have iOS devices, you may only require WebDAV sharing.
  • Each share has permissions that Apple provides which will work for some but not all.

In short, the default configuration probably isn’t going to work for everyone. Therefore, before we do anything else, let’s edit the shares to make them secure. The first step is to create all of your users and groups (or at least the ones that will get permissions to the shares). This is done in Server app using the Users and Groups entries in the List Pane. Once users and groups are created, open the Server app and then click on the File Sharing service in the SERVICES list in the List Pane. Here, you will see a list of the shares on the server.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.33.49 PMIn our example configuration we’re going to disable the built-in share. To do so, click on Groups one time and then click on the minus button on the screen.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.34.51 PMAs mentioned, shares can be shared out using different protocols. Next, we’re going to disable SMB for Public. To do so, double-click on Public and then uncheck the SMB protocol checkbox for the share.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.37.14 PMWhen you’ve disabled SMB, click on the Done button to save the changes to the server. Next, we’re going to create a new share for iPads to be able to put their work, above and beyond the WebDAV instance automatically used by the Wiki service. To create the share, first we’re going to create a directory for the share to live in on the computer, in this case in the /Shared Items/iPads directory. Then from the File Sharing pane in Server app, click on the plus sign (“+”).

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.38.49 PMAt the browse dialog, browse to the location of your iPad directory and then click on the Choose button.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.39.23 PMAt the File Sharing pane, double-click on the new iPads share.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.40.06 PMAt the screen for the iPads share, feel free to edit the name of the share (how it appears to users) as it by default uses the name of the directory for the name of the share. Then, it’s time to configure who has access to what on the share. Here, use the plus sign (“+”) in the Access section of the pane to add groups that should be able to have permission to access the share. Also, change the groups in the list that should have access by double-clicking on the name of the group and providing a new group name or clicking on the plus sign to add a user or group.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.40.47 PM

The permissions available in this screen for users that are added are Read & Write, Read Only/Read and Write. POSIX permissions (the bottom three entries) also have the option for No Access, but ACLs (the top entries comprise an Access Control List) don’t need such an option as if there is no ACE (Access Control Entry) for the object then No Access is assumed.

If more granular permissions are required then click on the name of the server in the Server app (the top item in the List Pane) and click on the Storage tab. Here, browse to the directory and click on Edit Permissions.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.42.06 PMAs can be seen, there are a number of other options that more granularly allow you to control permissions to files and directories in this view. If you make a share a home folder, you can use that share to store a home folder for a user account provided the server uses Open Directory. Once a share has been made an option for home folders it appears in both Workgroup Manager and the Server app as an available Home Folder location for users in that directory service.

Once you have created all the appropriate shares, deleted all the shares you no longer need and configured the appropriate permissions for the share, click on the ON button to start the File Sharing service.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.46.18 PMTo connect to a share, use the Connect to Server dialog, available by clicking Connect to Server in the Go menu. A change in Mavericks is that when you enter an address, the client connects over SMB. If you’d like to connect over AFP, enter afp:// in front of the address and then click Connect.

The File Sharing service can also be controlled from the command line. Mac OS X Server provides the sharing command. You can create, delete and augment information for share points using sharing. To create a share point for AFP you can use the following command:

sharing -a <path> -A <share name>

So let’s say you have a directory at /Shares/Public and you want to create a share point called PUBLIC. You can use the following command:

sharing -a /Shares/Public -A PUBLIC

Now, the -a here will create the share for AFP but what if you want to create a share for other protocols? Well, -F does FTP and -S does SMB. Once created you can disable the share using the following command:

sharing -r PUBLIC

To then get a listing of shares you can use the following command:

sharing -l

You can also use the serveradmin command to manage file shares as well as the sharing service. To see settings for file shares, use the serveradmin command along with the settings option and then define the sharing service:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing

Sharing settings include the following:

sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:smbName = "administrator's Public Folder"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:isIndexingEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "35DF29D6-D5F3-4F16-8F20-B50BCDFD8743"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:mountedOnPath = "/"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_account_uuid = "51BC33DC-1362-489E-8989-93286B77BD4C"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:path = "/Users/admin/Public"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:smbIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:afpName = "administrator's Public Folder"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:dsAttrTypeStandard\:GeneratedUID = "4646E019-352D-40D5-B62C-8A82AAE39762"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:smbDirectoryMask = "755"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:afpIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:smbCreateMask = "644"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:ftpName = "administrator's Public Folder"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Users/admin/Public:name = "administrator's Public Folder"

To see settings for the services use the serveradmin command with the settings option followed by the services: afp and smb:

sudo serveradmin settings afp

AFP settings include:

afp:maxConnections = -1
afp:kerberosPrincipal = "afpserver/LKDC:SHA1.978EED40F79A72F4309A272E6586CF0A3B8C062E@LKDC:SHA1.978EED40F79A72F4309A272E6586CF0A3B8C062E"
afp:fullServerMode = yes
afp:allowSendMessage = yes
afp:maxGuests = -1
afp:activityLog = yes

To see a run-down of some of the options for afp, see this article I did previously. Additionally, for a run-down of smb options, see this one.

Mac OS X Server Mac Security Mass Deployment

Logs, Scripts and OS X Mountain Lion Server

OS X Mountain Lion has a lot of scripts used for enabling services, setting states, changing hostnames and the like. Once upon a time there was a script for OS X Server called server setup. It was a beautiful but too simplistic kind of script. Today, much of that logic has been moved out into more granular scripts, kept in /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/ServerSetup, used by the server to perform all kinds of tasks. These scripts are, like a lot of other things in Mountain Lion Server. Some of these include the configuration of amavisd, docecot and alerts. These scripts can also be used for migrating services and data, such as /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/ServerSetup/MigrationExtras/30-ipfwmigrator. Sometimes the scripts are in bash, sometimes ruby, sometimes perl and other times even python.

Additionally, there’s a directory /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/ServerSetup/MigrationExtras/ that is full of scripts for migrating services in OS X Server, helpful for even services that have been seemingly deprecated.

One of the things that can can be useful about the scripts scattered throughout the Server app is to learn how the developers of OS X Server intend for certain tasks to occur. One such example is /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/ServerSetup/loggather.sh, used to grab logs. Here, you can learn the locations of certain logs as well as rudimentary stackshot commands. This is where I started calling stackshot before I did Server installs (or during), using the following command, which creates a custom text file containing :

/usr/libexec/stackshot -i -f /Library/Logs/ServerSetup_StackShot_KRYPTED.txt

This is also where I learned that I can tail /tmp/SetupLogs.tgz during some installs to be able to watch what’s going on during the installation process:

tail -f /tmp/SetupLogs.tgz

Looking At Each Service

This is also where I learned that Apple had put an Open Directory backup script in /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/usr/libexec/server_backup/opendirectorybackup (that still requires a password). But what I haven’t seen in all of these logs is bumping up the logging level for services before performing tasks, so that you can see a verbose output of what’s going on. To do this, it looks like we’re going service-by-service. So let’s look alphabetically, starting with Address Book:

sudo serveradmin settings addressbook:DefaultLogLevel = "warn"

This by defualt logs to /var/log/caldavd/error.log, which is built based on the following, which sets the base:

sudo serveradmin settings addressbook:LogRoot=/var/log/caldavd

And the following, which sets the file name in that directory:

sudo serveradmin settings addressbook:ErrorLogFile=error.log

You can change either by changing what comes after the = sign.

Next is afp. This service logs output to two places. The first is with errors to the service, using /Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceError.log, the path designated in the following:

sudo serveradmin settings afp:errorLogPath = "/Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceError.log"

The second location logs activities (open file, delete file, etc) rather than errors and is /Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceAccess.log, defined using:

sudo serveradmin settings afp:activityLogPath = "/Library/Logs/AppleFileService/AppleFileServiceAccess.log"

The activity log is disabled by default and enabled using the command:

sudo serveradmin settings afp:activityLog = yes

The events that trigger log entries are in the afp:loggingAttributes array and are all enabled by default. There are no further controls for the verbosity of the afp logs.

The next service is calendar. Similar to address book, the caldav server uses DefaultLogLevel to set how much data gets placed into logs:

sudo serveradmin settings calendar:DefaultLogLevel = "warn"

This by defualt logs to /var/log/caldavd/error.log, which is built based on the following, which sets the base:

sudo serveradmin settings calendar:LogRoot=/var/log/caldavd

And the following, which sets the file name in that directory:

sudo serveradmin settings calendar:ErrorLogFile=error.log

You can changing either by changing what comes after the = sign.

Profile Manager is called devicemgr in the serveradmin interface and I’ve found no way to augment the logging levels. Nor does its migration script ( /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/ServerSetup/MigrationExtras/80-devicemgrmigration.sh ) point to any increased logging during migration.

The dirserv (aka Open Directory) uses the slapconfig back-end, so I use slapconfig to increase logging:

sudo slapconfig -enableslapdlog

The DNS service uses named.conf, located in /etc to set log levels and has no serveradmin settings for doing so. Here, use the logging section and look for both the file setting (by default /Library/Logs/named.log) for where the log is stored as well as the severity setting, which can set the logging levels higher or lower.

By default Messages, or iChat Server, logs a lot. See the following for what is logged:

sudo serveradmin settings jabber:logLevel = "ALL"

Adding the -D option to the LaunchDaemon that invokes jabber will increase the logs. Logging long-term is handled in each of the xml files that make up the features of jabber. See the Logconfiguration section of the c2s file via:

cat /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/private/etc/jabberd/c2s.xml

The mail service has a number of options for logging, much of which has to do with the fact that it’s a patchy solution made up of postfix, etc. To see the virus database logging levels (which should usually be set to warn):

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:virus_db_log_level

To see the spamassassin logging levels:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:spam_log_level

To see the actual postfix logging level:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:log_level

To enable timestamps on logs:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:imap:logtimestamps = yes

To set the dovecot logging:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:imap:log_level = "warn"

To set increased logging per function that dovecot performs, see the config files in /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/private/etc/dovecot/default/conf.d, each of which has a logging section to do so.

The NetBoot service is simple to configure logging for, simply set the netboot:logging_level to HIGH (by default it’s MEDIUM):

sudo serveradmin settings netboot:logging_level = "HIGH"

The Postgres service uses a log directory, configured with postgres:log_directory:

sudo serveradmin settings postgres:log_directory = "/Library/Logs/PostgreSQL"

The /private/etc/raddb/radiusd.conf has a section (log {}) dedicated to configuring how the radius service logs output.

The san service (Xsan) logs output per volume to both the System Log and volume-based log files, stored in /Library/Preferences/Xsan/data.

The smb service has a file /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server.plist
with a key for log level that can be used for more verbose output of the service.

The PPTP VPN service logs output to the file specified in vpn:Servers, configured with these:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:LogFile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:LogFile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:LogFile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:LogFile = "/var/log/ppp/vpnd.log"

By default, verbose logging is enabled, which you can see with:

sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:Server:VerboseLogging
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:PPP:VerboseLogging
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:Server:VerboseLogging
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:PPP:VerboseLogging

The last service is web (Apache). The default access logs are per-site, with a key called customLogPath existing for each. The defaultSite uses the following for its logs:

sudo serveradmin settings web:defaultSite:customLogPath

Swap out the defaultSite with another site to see its log paths. There’s also a key for errorLogPath that shows errors. These are per-site so that administrators can provide access to logs for the owners of each site and not fear them having access to logs for other users. Global error logs are stored in /private/var/log/apache2/error_log as defined in /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf. Find LogLevel in this file and set it to configure how in depth the logs will be, using debug for the most verbose and info, notice, warn, error, crit, alert, and emerg to get incrementally less information.

Additionally the log formats can be set in /private/etc/apache2/httpd.conf, allowing administrators to configure Mountain Lion Server’s built-in web service to conform to the standards of most modern web log analyzers.

Conclusion

Overall, there’s a lot of information in these logs and administrators can spend as much time reviewing logs as they want. But other than standard system logs, the output is typically configured on a service-by-service basis. Some services offer a lot of options and others offering only a few. Some services also offer options within the serveradmin environment while others use their traditional locations in their configuration files. I’ll end this with a warning. There can also be a lot of output in these logs. Therefore, if you set the logging facilities high, make sure to keep a watchful eye on the capacity of the location you’re writing logs out to. The reason I looked at paths to logs where applicable was because you might want to consider redirecting logs to an external volume when debugging so as not to fill up a boot volume and cause even more problems than what you’re likely parsing through logs looking to fix…

Mac OS X Server Windows Server

Disable ACLs for SMB

I had a pretty strange issue recently with how QuickBooks works with Samba. The fix was to disable ACLs for SMB. While this seems like a silly issue for silly software, it’s worth noting the fix. Before doing so, it’s worth mentioning that

defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server AclsEnabled -bool NO

If yore having saving issues from QuickBooks and this doesn’t fix your issue I’d immediately switch back:

sudo defaults write /Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server AclsEnabled -bool YES