Tiny Deathstars of Foulness

Clients discover the Apple Caching service bundled with macOS Server (and in the future macOS) automatically. You can create a text recored for _aaplcache._tcp on your DNS server. That would look

_aaplcache._tcp 518400 IN TXT “prs=”

Name: _aaplcache._tcp with a type of TXT and a TTL of 518400 seconds. The prs is the address to be used and is set to a value using prs=

June 15th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

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I thought there might be an easier way to do this. So there’s this binary called serverrails that I assumed would install rails – no wait, actually it’s a ruby script that tells me to ‘gem install rails’ – which fails:

cat `which serverrails`
# Stub rails command to load rails from Gems or print an error if not installed.
require 'rubygems'

version = ">= 0"
if ARGV.first =~ /^_(.*)_$/ and Gem::Version.correct? $1 then
version = $1

gem 'railties', version or raise
rescue Exception
puts 'Rails is not currently installed on this system. To get the latest version, simply type:'
puts ' $ sudo gem install rails'
puts 'You can then rerun your "rails" command.'
exit 0

load Gem.bin_path('railties', 'rails', version)

Given that doesn’t work, we can just do this the old fashioned way… First let’s update rails to 2.2 or 2.2.4 using rvm, so grab the latest rvm and install it into /usr/local/rvm:

sudo curl -sSL | bash -s stable --ruby

Then fire it up:

sudo source /etc/profile.d/

Then install the latest ruby:

sudo rvm install 2.2

Set it as default:

sudo rvm use 2.2 –default

Then run your gem install:

gem install rails


November 14th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server

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Servers can have problems. When they have problems, you need to grab logs and stuff. Ever wonder what Apple developers think is important, when it comes to logs and stuff? Try serverdiagnose!


Then hit the Enter (return) key. Then it collects some logs into a tgz. Why a tgz? No clue. But it ends up in /tmp. Notice the name as ServerLogs- followed by the hostname, then a date stamp (yearmonthday) and an underscore followed by a timestamp. Inside the tgz is /Library/Logs, /Library/Server, /tmp/dsdiagnose (a dump of OD debug logs), serverlogs_S3vKsy (configuration statuses), a couple of things from /var/db (the most important of which is PreviousSystemLogs), and /var/log.

November 9th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

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The Time Machine service in macOS Server 5.2 hasn’t changed much from the service in previous operating systems. To enable the Time Machine service, open the Server app, click on Time Machine in the SERVICES sidebar. If the service hasn’t been enabled to date, the ON/OFF switch will be in the OFF position and no “Backup destination” will be shown in the Settings pane.


Click on the ON button to see the New Destination screen, used to configure a list of volumes as a destinations for Time Machine backups. The selection volume should be large enough to have space for all of the users that can potentially use the Time Machine service hosted on the server. When you click the Choose button, a list of volumes appears in a standard Finder selection screen.


Here, click on the volume to save your backups to in the sidebar. In most cases the Backup destination will be a mass storage device and not the boot volume of the computer. Once selected, click Choose and then if desired, limit the amount of storage on the volume to be used for backups. Click Create and a share called Backups is created and the service will start. Don’t touch anything until the service starts. Once started, add a backup destination at any time using the plus sign button (“+”) and defining another destination.


Time Machine Server works via Bonjour. Open the Time Machine System Preference pane and then click on the Select Backup Disk button from a client to see the server in the list of available targets, much as you would do with an Apple Time Capsule.


Under the hood, a backup share is creating in the file sharing service. To see the attributes of this share, use the serveradmin command followed by the settings option and then the sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:, so for a path of /Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups use:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups

The output indicates the options configured for the share, including how locking is handled, guest access disabled, generated identifiers and the protocols the backups share listens as:

sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:name = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isTimeMachineBackup = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "F4610C2C-70CD-47CF-A75B-3BAFB26D9EF3"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isIndexingEnabled = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:mountedOnPath = "/Volumes/New Volume 1"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeStandard\:GeneratedUID = "FAB13586-2A2A-4DB2-97C7-FDD2D747A0CD"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsShared = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbDirectoryMask = "755"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsShared = yes
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbCreateMask = "644"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:ftpName = "Backups"
sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:timeMachineBackupUUID = "844A1C43-61C9-4F99-91DE-C105EA95BD45"

Once the service is running, administrators frequently fill up the target volume. To move data to another location, first stop the service and then move the folder (e.g. using mv). Once moved, use the serveradmin command to send settings to the new backup path. For example, to change the target to /Volumes/bighonkindisk, use the following command:

sudo serveradmin settings sharing:sharePointList:_array_id:/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/bighonkindisk"

Another way to see the share and attributes of the share is through the sharing command:

sharing -l

Which should show output similar to the following:

List of Share Points
name: Backups
path: /Shared Items/Backups
afp: {
name: Backups
shared: 1
guest access: 0
inherit perms: 0
ftp: {
name: Backups
shared: 0
guest access: 0
smb: {
name: Backups
shared: 0
guest access: 0

There’s also a Bonjour service published that announces to other clients on the same subnet that the server can be used as a backup destination (the same technology used in a Time Capsule). One major update from back in Mavericks Server is the addition of the timemachine service in the severadmin command line interface. To see the command line settings for Time Machine:

sudo serveradmin settings timemachine

The output shows that share info is displayed as with the sharing service, but you can also see the GUID assigned to each share that is a part of the backup pool of storage:

timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeStandard\:GeneratedUID = "FAB13586-2A2A-4DB2-97C7-FDD2D747A0CD"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbDirectoryMask = "755"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbCreateMask = "644"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:nfsExportRecord = _empty_array
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:path = "/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsGuestAccessEnabled = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:name = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:ftpName = "Backups"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:smbIsShared = no
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:afpIsShared = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:timeMachineBackupUUID = "844A1C43-61C9-4F99-91DE-C105EA95BD45"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isTimeMachineBackup = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:backupQuota = 0
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:dsAttrTypeNative\:sharepoint_group_id = "F4610C2C-70CD-47CF-A75B-3BAFB26D9EF3"
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:isIndexingEnabled = yes
timemachine:sharePointList:_array_id:/Volumes/New Volume 1/Shared Items/Backups:mountedOnPath = "/Volumes/New Volume 1"
Additionally you can also query for the service to verify it’s running using full status:
sudo serveradmin fullstatus timemachine
Which outputs something similar to the following:
timemachine:command = "getState"
timemachine:state = "RUNNING"

While I found plenty to ramble on about in this article, Mass deployment is still the same, as is client side configuration.

October 15th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Time Machine

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Mac Server Services

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October 14th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , , , , ,

Getting started with Messages Server couldn’t really be easier. Messages Server in the macOS Server 5.2 version of the Server app uses the open source jabber project as their back-end code base. The jabber binary is located at /Applications/ directory and the autobuddy binary is at /Applications/ The actual jabberd binary is also stored at /Applications/, where there are a couple of perl scripts used to migrate the service between various versions as well.

Setting up the Messages service is simple. Open the Server app and click on Messages in the Server app sidebar.


Click on the Edit… button for the Permissions. Here, define which users and interfaces are allowed to use the service.


From Server app, click on the checkbox for “Enable server-to-server federation” if you have multiple iChat, er, I mean, Messages servers and provide the address for servers to federate to.


Next, click on the checkbox for “Archive all chat messages” if you’d like transcripts of all Messages sessions that route through the server to be saved on the server.


You should use an SSL certificate with the Messages service. If enabling federation so you can have multiple Messages servers, you have to. Before enabling the service, click on the name of the server in the sidebar of Server app and then click on the Settings tab. From here, click on Edit for the SSL Certificate (which should be plural btw) entry to bring up a screen to select SSL Certificates.

At the SSL Certificates screen (here it’s plural!), select the certificate the Messages service should use from the available list supplied beside that entry and click on the OK button. If you need to setup federation, click back on the Messages service in the sidebar of Server app and then click on the Edit button. Then, click on the checkbox for Require server-to-server federation (making sure each server has the other’s SSL certificate installed) and then choose whether to allow any server to federate with yours or to restrict which servers are allowed. I have always restricted unless I was specifically setting up a server I wanted to be public (like public as in everyone in the world can federate to it, including the gorram reavers that want to wear your skin).


To restrict the service, then provide a list of each server address capable of communicating with your server. Once all the servers are entered, click the OK button. Obviously, if you only have one server, you can skip that. Once the settings are as you wish them to be, click on the ON/OFF switch to light up the service. To see the status of the service, once started, use the fullstatus option with serveradmin followed by the jabber indicator:

sudo serveradmin fullstatus jabber

The output includes whether the service is running, the location of jabber log files, the name of the server as well as the time the service was started, as can be seen here:

jabber:state = "RUNNING"
jabber:roomsState = "RUNNING"
jabber:logPaths:PROXY_LOG = "/private/var/jabberd/log/proxy65.log"
jabber:logPaths:MUC_STD_LOG = "/var/log/system.log"
jabber:logPaths:JABBER_LOG = "/var/log/system.log"
jabber:proxyState = "RUNNING"
jabber:currentConnections = "0"
jabber:currentConnectionsPort1 = "0"
jabber:currentConnectionsPort2 = "0"
jabber:pluginVersion = "10.8.211"
jabber:servicePortsAreRestricted = "NO"
jabber:servicePortsRestrictionInfo = _empty_array
jabber:hostsCommaDelimitedString = "osxserver.krypted.lan"
jabber:hosts:_array_index:0 = "osxserver.krypted.lan"
jabber:setStateVersion = 1
jabber:startedTime = ""
jabber:readWriteSettingsVersion = 1

There are also a few settings not available in the Server app. One of these that can be important is the port used to communicate between the Messages client and the Messages service on the server. For example, to customize this to 8080, use serveradmin followed by settings and then jabber:jabberdClientPortSSL = 8080, as follows:

sudo serveradmin settings jabber:jabberdClientPortSSL = 8080

To change the location of the saved Messages transcripts (here, we’ll set it to /Volumes/Pegasus/Book:

sudo serveradmin settings jabber:savedChatsLocation = “/Volumes/Pegasus/Book”

To see a full listing of the options, just run settings with the jabber service:

sudo serveradmin settings jabber

The output lists each setting configurable:

jabber:dataLocation = “/Library/Server/Messages”
jabber:s2sRestrictDomains = no
jabber:jabberdDatabasePath = “/Library/Server/Messages/Data/sqlite/jabberd2.db”
jabber:sslCAFile = “/etc/certificates/”
jabber:jabberdClientPortTLS = 5222
jabber:sslKeyFile = “/etc/certificates/”
jabber:initialized = yes
jabber:enableXMPP = yes
jabber:savedChatsArchiveInterval = 7
jabber:authLevel = “STANDARD”
jabber:hostsCommaDelimitedString = “”
jabber:jabberdClientPortSSL = 5223
jabber:requireSecureS2S = yes
jabber:savedChatsLocation = “/Library/Server/Messages/Data/message_archives”
jabber:enableSavedChats = yes
jabber:enableAutoBuddy = no
jabber:s2sAllowedDomains = _empty_array
jabber:logLevel = “ALL”
jabber:hosts:_array_index:0 = “”
jabber:eventLogArchiveInterval = 7
jabber:jabberdS2SPort = 5269

To stop the service:

sudo serveradmin stop jabber

And to start it back up:

sudo serveradmin start jabber

It’s also worth noting something that’s completely missing in this whole thing: Apple Push Notifications… Why is that important? Well, you use the Messages application to communicate not only with Mac OS X and other jabber clients, but you can also use Messages to send text messages. Given that there’s nothing in the server that has anything to do with texts, push or anything of the sort, it’s worth noting that these messages don’t route through the server and therefore still require an iCloud account. Not a huge deal, but worth mentioning that Messages server doesn’t have the same updates built into the Messages app. Because messages don’t traverse the server, there’s no transcripts.

October 12th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , , , , , , , ,

macOS Server 5.2, running on Sierra, comes with a few new alerting options previously unavailable in versions of OS X. The alerts are sent to administrators via servermgrd and configured in the 5th version of the Server app. To configure alerts on the server, open the Server app and then click on Alerts in the Server app sidebar. Next, click on the Delivery tab.


At the Delivery screen, click on the Edit button for Email Addresses and enter every email address that should receive alerts sent from the server. Then click on the Edit button for Push Notifications. Here, check the box for each administrator of the server. The email address on file for the user then receives push notifications of events from the server.


Click on OK when you’ve configured all of the appropriate administrators for alerting. Click on the Edit… button for Push and if Push notifications are not already enabled you will run through the Push Notification configuration wizard.


Then, check the boxes for Email and Push for each of the alerts you want to receive (you don’t have to check both for each entry). Alerts have changed in macOS Server, they are no longer based on the SMART status of drives or capacity; instead Delivery is now based on service settings.

Finally, as with previous versions of macOS Server, snmp is built in. The configuration file for which is located in the /private/etc/snmp/snmpd.conf and the built-in LaunchDaemon is, where the actual binary being called is /usr/sbin/snmpd (and by default it’s called with a -f option). Once started, the default community name should be COMMUNITY (easily changed in the conf file) and to test, use the following command from a client (the client is in the following example):

snmpwalk -On -v 1 -c COMMUNITY

October 9th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security

Tags: , , , , , ,

You can disable the Connect to Server menu in OS X. This can be done via MDM or using defaults. To do so with the defaults command, send a ProhibitConnectTo key into as True and then restart the Finder, as follows using the defaults command:

defaults write ProhibitConnectTo -bool true ; killall Finder

To undo:

defaults write ProhibitConnectTo -bool false

September 4th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security

Tags: , , , , ,

The hostinfo command displays information about your host; namely your kernel version, the number of processors the kernel is configured for, the number of physical processors active, the number of logical processors active, the type of those processors, which ones are active, the amount of memory available, tasks, threads, and average load.

Run hosting without any arguments or options:


The output would be as follows (ymmv per system):

Mach kernel version:
Darwin Kernel Version 15.0.0: Wed Aug 26 19:41:34 PDT 2015; root:xnu-3247.1.106~5/RELEASE_X86_64
Kernel configured for up to 4 processors.
2 processors are physically available.
4 processors are logically available.
Processor type: x86_64h (Intel x86-64h Haswell)
Processors active: 0 1 2 3
Primary memory available: 16.00 gigabytes
Default processor set: 395 tasks, 1711 threads, 4 processors
Load average: 1.78, Mach factor: 2.21

There are a bunch of other commands that can provide far more detailed information about your system. However, hostinfo has remained basically unchanged for 13 years, so if I can get something there, I can trust it’s fairly future-proofed in my scripts.

November 23rd, 2015

Posted In: Mac OS X

Tags: , , , ,

In case your Mac just isn’t emo enough for ya’, Apple’s provided us a cool little new feature in Yosemite called dark mode. No, this won’t cause Hellboy to leap forth from your MacBook Air. Well, maybe he’ll visit your MacBook Pro, but I haven’t tested that so please don’t quote me on that. Instead, you’ll get the nice new dark menu bar:

Screen Shot 2015-09-10 at 10.41.10 PM

But that’s not all folks! Your dock will also get all dark and gothy!

Screen Shot 2015-09-10 at 10.41.29 PM

To turn it on, just open the General System Preference pane and check the box for “Use dark menu bar and Dock”.

Screen Shot 2015-09-10 at 10.42.23 PM

Enjoy! Oh, and if that’s not emo enough for you feel free to watch this sad emo love song video (yes, I googled for “sad emo” to find it; no, it’s not bookmarked; yes, I bought eyeliner after watching it; yes, then my high school self time travelled to present day and kicked the crap out of me; yes, I thanked him).

October 5th, 2015

Posted In: Mac OS X

Tags: , , , , , ,

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