krypted.com

Tiny Deathstars of Foulness

I thought I posted this previously, but it doesn’t appear as though I did. Server 5, Roundcube installer. Get better mail on OS X Server if you’re misguided enough to use the service. 🙂

https://topicdesk.com/downloads/tools/roundcube-for-os-x-server/

Screen Shot 2016-04-24 at 1.56.07 PM

April 29th, 2016

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , ,

From Take Control:

Apple Mail. It’s hard to get by on a Mac or iOS device without it. But living with Mail can be a recipe for hair-pulling frustration, whether because of connection failures caused by Mail’s mysteriously unreliable automatic settings detection or trying to figure out the difference between long and short swipes in the iOS version. No one knows more about Mail than Joe Kissell, and he has distilled his most important advice into the second edition of “Take Control of Apple Mail,” now completely revised and updated to explain Mail in 10.10 Yosemite and iOS 8. 183 pages of goodness is only $15.

Point others here > http://tid.bl.it/tco-apple-mail

Apple’s Pages word processor built a loyal following because it wasn’t Microsoft Word, but Apple threw us a curveball with the release of Pages 5 for the Mac and Pages 2 for iOS, removing numerous features and shuffling the interface around. Michael Cohen has spent the last year spelunking through the depths of Pages on the Mac, in iOS, and in iCloud to ferret out what has changed, how to accomplish both everyday and complex word processing and layout tasks, and the best ways to work back and forth in all three versions of Pages via iCloud Drive in Yosemite and iOS 8. At 266 pages, “Take Control of Pages” comprehensively documents what you want to do in Pages for $20.

Point others here > http://tid.bl.it/tco-pages-info

Thank you for your support of the Take Control series, and may all your wishes comes true this holiday season!

December 19th, 2014

Posted In: Articles and Books

Tags: , , ,

The latest Roundcube installer for OS X Server is now available at http://topicdesk.com/downloads/roundcube. This update, which provides a pretty awesome WebMail interface to OS X Server’s Mail Service provides the following:

  • One installer that supports all Mavericks and Yosemite
  • Roundcube WebMail 1.0.3 installed as a WebApp
  • Automatically Configured Plugins
  • Roundcube CardDav: Server-based address books
  • Roundcube Managesieve: Server-side mail filtering and vacation messages
  • PHP and Roundcube Config automatically configured for a typical Mac installation
  • sqllite database – we no longer use Postgres
  • Integration with the Mail Service running on OS X Server

December 17th, 2014

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , , , , , ,

Mail is one of the hardest services to manage. Actually, mail is pretty simple in and of itself: there’s protocols people use to access their mail (such as IMAP and POP), protocols used to communicate between mail servers and send mail (SMTP, SMTPS) and then there’s a database of mail and user information. In Mavericks Server, all of these are represented by a single ON button, so it really couldn’t be easier. But then there’s the ecoysystem and the evil spammers.

As a systems administrator of a large number of mail servers, I firmly believe that there is a special kind of hell where only spam is served at every meal for spammers. Here, the evil spammers must also read every piece of spam ever sent for eternity. By the end (aka Ragnarok), they should have the chemically induced stamina of a 16 year old with the latest Sports Illustrated Swimsuit issue, enough pills of other types to not be able to use that stamina, plenty of African princes looking to donate large sums of money if only they can be helped out of their country (which should cost about 100,000 compared to a 5,000,000 payout, not a bad ROI, right?!?!?), have their conflicting stamina situation at the top of the search engines and of course, have lost all of the money made from their African princes due to getting their credit card hijacked by about 9,000 phishing scams. All in all, a special kind of hell…

But back to the point of the article, setting up mail. The things that mail administrators need to focus on to keep that mail server flowing mail to and from everyone else in the world:

  • Static IP address. The WAN (and LAN probably) address should be static.
  • Port Forwards. Port forwards need to be configured on the gateway for the SMTP port at a minimum and more than likely other ports used to access mail on client devices (25, 143, etc)
  • DNS records. An MX record and some kind of mail.domain.com type of record should definitely be configured for the DNS servers that are authoritative for the domain. There should also be reverse records for the address of the server, usually created by the Internet Services Provider, or ISP, that match that record.
  • Check the RBLs. If you have a new IP address you’ll be putting a DNS server on, check all the major Realtime BlackLists to make sure that some evil spammer hasn’t squatted on the IP before you got to it. This is true whether you’re in a colo, hosted on an IP you own or moving into space formerly occupied by a very standup company. A lot of IP addresses are blocked, as are blocks of IPs, so before moving mail to an IP, check it.
  • Mail filtration (message hygiene). OS X Server has a number of mail filters built in, including clam for viruses, the ability to leverage RBLs, block specific addresses and of course RBL checking. However, this is often not enough. Third party services such as MXLogic help to keep mail from coming into your network. You also end up with an external IP to send mail that can cache mail in the event the server is down and keep mail off your network in the event that it’s spam.
  • Backup. I am firmly of the belief that I’d rather not have data than not have that data backed up…

Once all of that is taken care of (I’ll add more as I think about it) then it’s time to enable the mail service in the Server app running on Yosemite. Actually, first let’s setup our SSL certificates. To do so, open the Server app and click on Certificates in the SERVER section of the sidebar. Here, use the “Secure services using” drop-down list and click on Custom… for each protocol to select the appropriate certificate to be used for the service.

Mail1

Click OK when they’re all configure. Now let’s enable the mail service (or outsource mail). To do so, open the Server app and click on Mail in the SERVICES list in the sidebar.

Mail2

At the configuration screen is a sparse number of settings:

  • Provide mail for: Configures all of the domains the mail server will listen for mail for. Each account on the server has a short name and each domain name will be available for each short name. For example, an account with a shortname of charles will be available for email addresses of charles@pretendco.com and charles@krypted.com per the Domain Name listing below.Mail3
  • Authentication: Click Edit for a list of sources that accounts can authenticate against (e.g. Active Directory, Open Directory, Custom, Local, etc) and in some cases the specific password algorithms used for mail.Mail4
  • Push Notifications: If Push is configured previously there’s no need to use this option. Otherwise, use your institutional APNS account to configure Push Notifications.Mail5
  • Relay outgoing mail through ISP: Provide a server that all mail will get routed through from the server. For example, this might be an account with your Internet Services Provider (ISP), an account on an appliance that you own (such as a Barracuda) or with an external filtering service (such as MXLogic).Mail6
  • Limit mail to: Configure the total amount of mail a user can have in the mail store, in Megabytes.
  • Edit Filtering Settings: Configure antivirus, spam assassin and junk mail filters. The “Enable virus filtering” checkbox enables clam. The “Enable blacklist filtering” checks the RBL (or RBLs) of your choice to check whether a given server is a “known” spammer and the “Enable junk mail filtering” option enables spam assassin on the host, configuring it to block based on a score as selected using the slider.

Once you’ve configured the settings for the Mail service, click on the ON slider to enable the service. At this point, you should be able to telnet into port 25 of the host to verify that SMTP is listening, preferably from another mail server:

telnet mail.krypted.com 25

You can also check that the mail services are running using the serveradmin command along with the fullstatus option for the mail service:

sudo serveradmin fullstatus mail

Which returns with some pretty verbose information about the service, including state, connections, running protocols and the rest of the following:

mail:startedTime = ""
mail:setStateVersion = 1
mail:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:protocol = "IMAP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:service = "MailAccess"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:protocol = "POP3"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:service = "MailAccess"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:protocol = "SMTP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:service = "MailTransferAgent"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:kind = "OUTGOING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:protocol = "SMTP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:service = "MailTransferAgent"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:status = "OFF"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:protocol = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:service = "ListServer"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:protocol = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:service = "JunkMailFilter"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:protocol = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:service = "VirusScanner"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:6:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:protocol = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:service = "VirusDatabaseUpdater"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:7:error = ""
mail:logPaths:Server Error Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mail-err.log"
mail:logPaths:IMAP Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mail-info.log"
mail:logPaths:Server Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mail-info.log"
mail:logPaths:POP Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mail-info.log"
mail:logPaths:SMTP Log = "/var/log/mail.log"
mail:logPaths:List Server Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/listserver.log"
mail:logPaths:Migration Log = "/Library/Logs/MailMigration.log"
mail:logPaths:Virus Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/clamav.log"
mail:logPaths:Amavisd Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/amavis.log"
mail:logPaths:Virus DB Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/freshclam.log"
mail:imapStartedTime = ""
mail:postfixStartedTime = ""
mail:servicePortsRestrictionInfo = _empty_array
mail:servicePortsAreRestricted = "NO"
mail:connectionCount = 0
mail:readWriteSettingsVersion = 1
mail:serviceStatus = "DISABLED"

To stop the service:

sudo serveradmin stop mail

And to start it back up:

sudo serveradmin start mail

To configure some of the settings no longer in the GUI from previous versions, let’s look at the full list of options:

sudo serveradmin settings mail

One that is commonly changed is the subject line added to messages that are marked as spam by spam assassin. This is stored in mail:postfix:spam_subject_tag, so changing would be:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:spam_subject_tag = "***DIEEVILSPAMMERSDIE*** "

A number of admins also choose to disable greylisting, done using the mail:postfix:greylist_disable option:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:greylist_disable = no

To configure an email address for quarantined mail to go, use mail:postfix:virus_quarantine:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:virus_quarantine = "diespammersdie@krypted.com"

The administrator, by default, doesn’t get an email when an email containing a file infected with a virus is sent through the server. To enable this option:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:virus_notify_admin = yes

I also find a lot of Mac environments want to accept email of pretty much any size. By default, message size limits are enabled. To disable:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:message_size_limit_enabled = yes

Or even better, just set new limit:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:message_size_limit = 10485760

And to configure the percentage of someone’s quota that kicks an alert (soft quota):

sudo serveradmin settings mail:imap:quotawarn = 75

Additionally, the following arrays are pretty helpful, which used to have GUI options:

  • mail:postfix:mynetworks:_array_index:0 = “127.0.0.0/8″ – Add entries to this one to add “local” clients
  • mail:postfix:host_whitelist = _empty_array – Add whitelisted hosts
  • mail:postfix:blacklist_from = _empty_array – Add blacklisted hosts
  • mail:postfix:black_hole_domains:_array_index:0 = “zen.spamhaus.org” – Add additional RBL Servers

The client side of the mail service is straight forward enough. If you are wondering where in this article we discuss using webmail, er, that’s not installed by default any longer. But the open source project previously used, roundcube, is still available for download and easily installed (the pre-reqs are all there, already). Check out the roundcube wiki installation page here for more info on that. Also, mail groups. I hope to have a post about that soon enough. Unless, of course, I get sidetracked with having a life. Which is arguably not very likely…

October 17th, 2014

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Microsoft Exchange Server

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Mail Server chapter of the Take Control book is now available up on http://tidbits.com/article/14950. I’m always torn when it comes to writing chapters on setting up mail servers. Is it socially irresponsible to help people potentially (but accidentally) create spam bots…

TCo OS X Server 1.0 Cover for PDF

July 31st, 2014

Posted In: Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , , , ,

Mail is one of the hardest services to manage. Actually, mail is pretty simple in and of itself: there’s protocols people use to access their mail (such as IMAP and POP), protocols used to communicate between mail servers and send mail (SMTP, SMTPS)  and then there’s a database of mail and user information. In Mount Lion Server, all of these are represented by a single ON button, so it really couldn’t be easier. But then there’s the ecoysystem and the evil spammers.

As a systems administrator of a large number of mail servers, I firmly believe that there is a special kind of hell where only spam is served at every meal for spammers. Here, the evil spammers must also read every piece of spam ever sent for eternity. By the end (aka Ragnarok), they should be fairly well hung, have chemically induced stamina of a 16 year old with the latest Sports Illustrated Swimsuit issue, enough pills of other types to not be able to use that stamina, plenty of African princes looking to donate large sums of money if only they can be helped out of their country (which should cost about 100,000 compared to a 5,000,000 payout, not a bad ROI, right?!?!?), have their conflicting stamina situation at the top of the search engines and of course, have lost all of the money made from their African princes due to getting their credit card hijacked by about 9,000 phishing scams. All in all, a special kind of hell…

But back to the point of the article, setting up mail… The things that mail administrators need to focus on to keep that mail server flowing mail to and from everyone else in the world:

  • Static IP address. The WAN (and LAN probably) address should be static.
  • Port Forwards. Port forwards need to be configured on the gateway for the SMTP port at a minimum and more than likely other ports used to access mail on client devices (25, 143, etc)
  • DNS records. An MX record and some kind of mail.domain.com type of record should definitely be configured for the DNS servers that are authoritative for the domain. There should also be reverse records for the address of the server, usually created by the Internet Services Provider, or ISP, that match that record.
  • Check the RBLs. If you have a new IP address you’ll be putting a DNS server on, check all the major Realtime BlackLists to make sure that some evil spammer hasn’t squatted on the IP before you got to it. This is true whether you’re in a colo, hosted on an IP you own or moving into space formerly occupied by a very standup company. A lot of IP addresses are blocked, as are blocks of IPs, so before moving mail to an IP, check it.
  • Mail filtration (message hygiene). OS X Server has a number of mail filters built in, including clam for viruses, the ability to leverage RBLs, block specific addresses and of course RBL checking. However, this is often not enough. Third party services such as MXLogic help to keep mail from coming into your network. You also end up with an external IP to send mail that can cache mail in the event the server is down and keep mail off your network in the event that it’s spam.
  • Backup. I am firmly of the belief that I’d rather not have data than not have that data backed up…

Once all of that is taken care of (I’ll add more as I think about it) then it’s time to enable the mail service. Actually, first let’s setup our SSL certificates. To do so, open the Server app and click on the name of the server in the HARDWARE section of the sidebar. Then click on the Settings tab and then the Edit button beside the SSL Certificate entry. Here, use the Certificate drop-down list for each protocol to select the appropriate certificate to be used for the service.

Click OK when they’re all configure. Now let’s enable the mail service (or outsource mail). To do so, open the Server app and click on Mail in the SERVICES list in the sidebar.

At the configuration screen is a sparse number of settings:

  • Provide mail for: Configures all of the domains the mail server will listen for mail for. Each account on the server has a short name and each domain name will be available for each short name. For example, an account with a shortname of charles will be available for email addresses of charles@pretendco.com and charles@krypted.com per the Domain Name listing below.
  • Authentication: Click Edit for a list of sources that accounts can authenticate against (e.g. Active Directory, Open Directory, Custom, Local, etc) and in some cases the specific password algorithms used for mail.
  • Relay outgoing mail through ISP: Provide a server that all mail will get routed through from the server. For example, this might be an account with your Internet Services Provider (ISP), an account on an appliance that you own (such as a Barracuda) or with an external filtering service (such as MXLogic).
  • Limit mail to: Configure the total amount of mail a user can have in the mail store, in Megabytes.
  • Edit Filtering Settings: Configure antivirus, spam assassin and junk mail filters. The “Enable virus filtering” checkbox enables clam. The “Enable blacklist filtering” checks the RBL (or RBLs) of your choice to check whether a given server is a “known” spammer and the “Enable junk mail filtering” option enables spam assassin on the host, configuring it to block based on a score as selected using the slider.

Once you’ve configured the settings for the Mail service, click on the ON slider to enable the service. At this point, you should be able to telnet into port 25 of the host to verify that SMTP is listening, preferably from another mail server:

telnet mail.krypted.com 25

You can also check that the mail services are running using the serveradmin command along with the fullstatus option for the mail service:

sudo serveradmin fullstatus mail

Which returns with some pretty verbose information about the service, including state, connections, running protocols and the rest of the following:

mail:setStateVersion = 1
mail:readWriteSettingsVersion = 1
mail:connectionCount = 0
mail:servicePortsRestrictionInfo = _empty_array
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:protocol = "IMAP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:state = "RUNNING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:0:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:protocol = "POP3"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:state = "RUNNING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:1:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:protocol = "SMTP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:state = "RUNNING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:2:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:kind = "OUTGOING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:protocol = "SMTP"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:state = "RUNNING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:3:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:protocol = "Junk_mail_filter"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:4:error = ""
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:status = "ON"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:kind = "INCOMING"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:protocol = "Virus_scanner"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:state = "STOPPED"
mail:protocolsArray:_array_index:5:error = ""
mail:startedTime = "2012-07-30 18:14:26 +0000"
mail:logPaths:IMAP Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mailaccess.log"
mail:logPaths:Server Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mailaccess.log"
mail:logPaths:POP Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/mailaccess.log"
mail:logPaths:SMTP Log = "/var/log/mail.log"
mail:logPaths:Migration Log = "/Library/Logs/MailMigration.log"
mail:logPaths:Virus Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/clamav.log"
mail:logPaths:Amavisd Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/amavis.log"
mail:logPaths:Virus DB Log = "/Library/Logs/Mail/freshclam.log"
mail:imapStartedTime = "2012-07-30 18:14:26 +0000"
mail:servicePortsAreRestricted = "NO"
mail:state = "RUNNING"
mail:postfixStartedTime = "2012-07-30 18:14:49 +0000"

To stop the service:

sudo serveradmin stop mail

And to start it back up:

sudo serveradmin start mail

To configure some of the settings no longer in the GUI from previous versions, let’s look at the full list of options:

sudo serveradmin settings mail

One that is commonly changed is the subject line added to messages that are marked as spam by spam assassin. This is stored in mail:postfix:spam_subject_tag, so changing would be:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:spam_subject_tag = "***DIEEVILSPAMMERSDIE*** "

A number of admins also choose to disable greylisting, done using the mail:postfix:greylist_disable option:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:greylist_disable = no

To configure an email address for quarantined mail to go, use mail:postfix:virus_quarantine:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:virus_quarantine = "diespammersdie@krypted.com"

The administrator, by default, doesn’t get an email when an email containing a file infected with a virus is sent through the server. To enable this option:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:virus_notify_admin = yes

I also find a lot of Mac environments want to accept email of pretty much any size. By default, message size limits are enabled. To disable:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:message_size_limit_enabled = yes

Or even better, just set new limit:

sudo serveradmin settings mail:postfix:message_size_limit = 10485760

And to configure the percentage of someone’s quota that kicks an alert (soft quota):

sudo serveradmin settings mail:imap:quotawarn = 75

Additionally, the following arrays are pretty helpful, which used to have GUI options:

  • mail:postfix:mynetworks:_array_index:0 = “127.0.0.0/8” – Add entries to this one to add “local” clients
  • mail:postfix:host_whitelist = _empty_array – Add whitelisted hosts
  • mail:postfix:blacklist_from = _empty_array – Add blacklisted hosts
  • mail:postfix:black_hole_domains:_array_index:0 = “zen.spamhaus.org” – Add additional RBL Servers

The client side of the mail service is straight forward enough. If you are wondering where in this article we discuss using webmail, er, that’s not installed by default any longer. But the open source project previously used, roundcube, is still available for download and easily installed (the pre-reqs are all there, already). Check out the roundcube wiki installation page here for more info on that. Also, mail groups. I hope to have a post about that soon enough. Unless, of course, I get sidetracked with having a life. Which is arguably not very likely…

July 31st, 2012

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Mountain Lion Server is now available on the OS X App Store and as with the last few updates there are some things missing that you might be expecting and depending on. First up, three major services are gone: Podcast Producer, RADIUS and dhcp. You can still do dhcp as you always did with OS X client as those features work on OS X Server, but the more granular controls available in OS X Server are now gone. The biggest impact of dhcp is probably in testing NetBoot services when there are network issues and you need to prove to network admins that it’s the network and not your server…

I had written an article before about FTP still being in OS X Server from the command line, but now it’s back in the GUI, which should make many an administrator happy. NAT is also gone from the GUI, but natd and natutil are still available from the command line. Might as well just use the Sharing System Preference pane for such things though… Server Admin is now gone (long live Server Admin!) and Workgroup Manager is now a download to be performed and installed following installation. Support for Managed Preferences is gone, even though most manifests technically still work.

Many services also got some pretty nice updates. These include:

  • Calendar – There are a few updates on the client side, but not on the server side. Most notably, the option to publish calendars is now gone. If you used that, it’s time to get used to manually exporting, copying to a share and then distributing links. This is going to likely cause more use of the Calendar server itself, to some degree. Also, it’s not iCal or iCal Server, it’s now Calendar and Calendar server. Seems to me that this isn’t obviously an Apple-centric naming structure as with most other things they do, but sometimes you’re gonna’ have that…
  • Contacts – Nope, it’s not called Address Book server, it’s the Contacts service. Same with the client side application.
  • DNS – DNS management is moved into the Server application. You can also now restrict who you do lookups for in the GUI. Under the hood very little changes.
  • File Sharing – Nothing really changes with file sharing, except the wiki integration described in the Wiki section in a little bit.
  • Firewall – The firewall option is gone, as is the ipfilter at the command line, but pf is easy to configure from the command line.
  • FTP – It’s a quick and easy single share solution from the GUI. Using the sharing command there’s still tons available to administrators.
  • Mail – Authentication mechanisms and domains are in the GUI, but very little changes otherwise.
  • Messages – The service name has changed from iChat to Messages in the GUI but is still jabber from the command line. The big change with this service is that the client side is now able to leverage iCloud to instant message mobile devices as well. Therefore, the text messaging component is client-side and has no impact on the jabber service itself.
  • NetInstall – The “NetInstall” service is NetBoot. It can host NetRestore or NetInstall images, but the heavy lifting for that stuff is done in System Image Utility. And the output of the SIU commands are now more scriptable through the automator command line interface. The NetInstall screen is now in Server app and is a good port from Server Admin in that it’s similar in look and feel to the NetBoot screen in Server Admin. A feature that isn’t in the GUI is diskless NetBoot, which is fine because I documented how to do it when I realized it would be an issue for a few customers.
  • Open Directory – Given that Server Admin is gone, something had to happen with Open Directory. The Open Directory screens have been moved to Server app where it’s fast to setup and tear down Open Directory. Open Directory based Users and Groups are also created through the Server App, although Workgroup Manager can be downloaded and used still. Immediately following upgrades, the add and remove users buttons are gone for previously stand-alone hosts. Also the Manage Network Accounts option is now gone from Server app, replaced with the traditional ON button supplied by Apple for other services.
  • Profile Manager – This deserves its own post, which is in the queue, but suffice it to say that while you can’t tell when looking in Server app, there are a number of upgrades to Profile Manager.
  • Software Update – Management of the service is moved from Server Admin to Server app. There are now fewer options in the GUI, but the same in the command line. Cascading is a little different.
  • Time Machine – Time Machine server is the same… The versions option from the Time Machine Server preference pane is gone and the layout is a little changed, but the server component is identical in functionality as well as look and feel.
  • VPN – Unless you add another supported VPN protocol there’s not much to do after fixing most issues in 10.7.4. Except fixing the last issue with search bases, seemingly resolved as it’s working for me pretty well.
  • Websites – There are more options in the GUI for new sites. The default site appears twice (once for 80 and once for 443), but there are more options, such as the Web App functionality that comes with a default Python “Hello World” app. Also the server is still called web from the serveradmin command line, but is now called Websites through the GUI.
  • Wiki – The wiki has themes again, although they’re just color schemes. And you can create your own custom banners and upload, which brings back two of the most common feature requests from people that hack the look and feel of the wiki in versions previous to Lion. But the most substantial aspect of the Wiki to change to me is the document management options, available to users in WebDAV or through the portal. This allows for a very mobile-friendly file management tool. Blogs and wikis for the most part stay the same and have a very clean upgrade process from Lion. The command line tools also feature some new options for indexing, etc., which many will find helpful.
  • Xsan – cvadmin, cvlabel, cvversions, etc are now stored in /System/Library/Filesystems/acfs.fs/Contents/bin/ and Xsan has its own entry in the Server app. Despite hearing people question its future, I’ve never seen as many questions flying around about how to do things with Xsan than I do now. Storage sales are up, monkey chatter on the web is up, deployments are being booked and Xsan looks here to stay. The Server app only really shows you a status of things, but the Xsan Admin app is now embedded in the Server app and available through the Server app Tools directory.

Configuring Websites in Server app

The Alerts options are much more robust in Mountain Lion than they were previously. You  can now get alerts on a myriad of things, incuding certs, disks, space, storage quotas, virus detection, network changes and software updates.

Configuring Alerts in Mountain Lion Server

The Server commands also moved and in fact the whole file and folder structure mostly fit nicely inside of the Server app. There are certain things that haven’t been dealt with in this regard such as NetBoot’s library, but for the most part Apple is getting Server to the point where it’s very self-contained. The ramification of which is that upgrades for future releases (and from Lion to Mountain Lion for that matter) are much simpler. Simply downloading a new version informs administrators that the app has been replaced and is good to go, service data in tact. In real world, this has been a little hit or miss but should prove to make our lives much easier in the future.

Reducing scope, aligning with better development practices and all the work to merge all of the remaining services into Server app are huge undertakings. I would fully expect no further support or updates to Workgroup Manager, no more testing of managed preferences in deference to profiles and a few other culture shifts that still need to shake themselves out. Most of us are going to seem underwhelmed (if that’s a word, no it’s not ’cause I looked it up -> awesome video below –> ’cause affection has 2 fs, especially when you’re dealin’ with me). But here’s the thing, with an incremental update, you’re not going to get massive changes. Instead we will get slow and steady updates hopefully continuing to build faster towards a better end goal. What’s important is that the foundation is actually better now, given changes to other parts of OS X and so Server is likely now better positioned than ever for great new features in subsequent releases.

Oh, and did I forget to mention that Xgrid is gone. I guess no one really noticed anyway…

July 26th, 2012

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

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One of my little irritations about OS X just got easier. When I’m using Mail and I copy and email address and paste it somewhere, it has the name of the contact bracing the email address wrapped with a <>. This is a royal pain. I am pretty sure that every single flippin’ time I’ve removed the cruft around the email address. While digging around in com.apple.mail I noticed a key for AddressesIncludeNameOnPasteboard that was set to True. Holy crap. Change to False and this minor irritation is gone. Viola, OS X is now even better:

defaults write com.apple.mail AddressesIncludeNameOnPasteboard -bool FALSE

To set it back:

defaults write com.apple.mail AddressesIncludeNameOnPasteboard -bool TRUE

I’m sure others have uncovered this before me (mostly because I googled it after I found it). So nothing really new here, but pretty sure that one will save me at least 3 minutes per year. Yay for me.

July 19th, 2012

Posted In: Mac OS X

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I frequently write about adding entries in OS X Servers configuration database using serveradmin. But there are a lot of causes for various symptoms in OS X and trying some post of mine might end up biting you later, if it doesn’t fix your problem and you end up leaving the keys in place in OS X Server. Therefore, let’s look at something I might tell you to do, such as set a mail relay host from serveradmin:

serveradmin settings mail:postfix:smtp_auth_relay_dict:smtp_auth_relay_host = mdm.krypted.com

Once the setting has been configured, you might want to get rid of it outright. Now, this one happens to be exposed in the GUI, so you could set it there. But that’s not really any fun. According to the man page, you should be able to delete the keys and array entries using delete as the payload. But this is one place where the man page is actually incorrect. Let’s test by using delete as the entry, as follows:

serveradmin settings mail:postfix:smtp_auth_relay_dict:smtp_auth_relay_host = delete

Run serveradmin settings for mail to list all the settings:

serveradmin settings mail

And you’ll note that the key is actually just like you typed in, where rather than expand to function as a “delete the key” command, delete becomes the actual payload as a string:

serveradmin settings mail:postfix:smtp_auth_relay_dict:smtp_auth_relay_host = "delete"

Many services have a corresponding property list that contains their settings. These are stored in /Library/Server in a Config directory nested inside the service name. So for example, settings for the mail service would be stored in /Library/Server/Mail/Config/MailServicesOther.plist. In the same folder is MailServicesOther.10.8.plist, which references the settings files for a few other services that help to make up the Mail service. Delete the array entry and you’ll have achieved your goal of removing the entry.

Some of the service configuration files are .config files instead of property lists. In those cases, look for the keys in the configuration file and restart after you change them, but make sure to check that the changes took as many times you might have something else you need to do. I frequently use fsevents to see which configuration file I’m editing when I run a command in serveradmin and then find the correct value in the plist that I’ve altered once I’ve changed something in serveradmin. Overall, the man page illustrates the most desirable way to delete custom entries. However, in the absence of this working, it’s worth noting other ways to achieve the same result.

July 4th, 2012

Posted In: Mac OS X Server

Tags: , , , , , ,

Concurrent with my last post on using mail from the command line there was a thread on the Mac OS X Server email list on using attachments with mail, so I thought I would supplement what they were doing there here (so if you were following that thread the only new thing here are the -c and -b options). Let’s say you have a file on your desktop called orgchart.doc and you wanted to attach it to an email and send it to a few email addresses: contact@org.com, contact2@org.com and krypted@mac.com. We’re also going to bcc secret@org.com.  You would use the following command:

uuencode ~/Desktop/orgchart.doc orgchart.doc | mail -s “orgchart” contact@org.com -c contact2@org.com,krypted@mac.com -b secret@org.com

The uuencode command encodes the attachment. The reason the filename appears twice is that you need to tell it the name of the encoded file. Then we pipe the output into an email using the mail command, attaching the file, using the -s option of the mail command to define a subject and the -c option to define a comma separated list of contacts.  Finally we’re going to bcc secret@org.com by following a -b option with that email address.

June 18th, 2009

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

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