The DNS service in macOS Server was simple to setup and manage. It’s a bit more manual in macOS without macOS Server. The underlying service that provides DNS is Bind. Bind will require a compiler to install, so first make sure you have the Xcode command line tools installed. To download Bind, go to ISC at https://www.isc.org/downloads/. From there, copy the installer locally and extract the tar file. Once that’s extracted, run the configure from within the extracted directory:
./configure --enable-symtable=none --infodir="/usr/share/info" --sysconfdir="/etc" --localstatedir="/var" --enable-atomic="no" --with-gssapi=yes --with-libxml2=no
Next, run make:
Then run make install:
Now download a LaunchDaemon plist (I just stole this from the org.isc.named.plist on a macOS Server, which can be found at /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/System/Library/LaunchDaemons/org.isc.named.plist or downloaded using that link). The permissions for a custom LaunchDaemon need to be set appropriately:
chmod root:wheel /Library/LaunchDaemons/org.isc.named.plist
Then start it up and test it!
krypted April 11th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server
install bind, MAC, macos, os x, replace macOS server
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Backblaze is a great cloud and on-prem backup tool for Mac and Windows. You can download Backblaze at
https://secure.backblaze.com/download.htm. Once downloaded, extract the DMG and open the Backblaze Installer.
At the Installer screen, enter your existing credentials or create a new account and click Install Now.
The drive will then be analyzed for backup.
By default, once the analysis is complete, the computer will immediately start backing up to the Backblaze cloud. Let’s click on the Settings button to configure how the Backblaze app will work.
This opens the Backblaze System Preference pane. At the Settings tab, you’ll see a list of drives to back up and an option to set when to receive warnings when the computer hasn’t completed a backup recently.
By default, performance is throttled so as not to cause your computer to run poorly. Click on the Performance tab. Here, you can disable that option,
By default, backups run continuously, as files are altered. You can use the schedule screen to move backups to a specific time (e.g. at 1am every night). I personally like having continuous backups if you have enough bandwidth to account for them.
By default, the whole system is not going to get backed up. Click Exclusions and you can see what will be skipped and disable some of the skips.
By default, backups are encrypted using public keys. I inherently trust the people at Backblaze. But I still use an encryption key to add an extra layer of security to my backups.
To set that, click on the Security tab.
At the Security screen, click on Enter Your Private Encryption Key.
Once you’ve got a good backup policy set. Click on the Reports screen to see what’s getting backed up!
krypted April 10th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security
Apple, backblaze, backup, MAC
People who have managed Open Directory and will be moving to Synology will note that directory services really aren’t nearly as complicated was we’ve made them out to be for years. This is because Apple was protecting us from doing silly things to break our implementations. It was also because Apple bundled a number of seemingly disparate technologies into ldap. It’s worth mentioning that LDAP on a Synology is LDAP. We’re not federating services, we’re not kerberizing services, we’re not augmenting schemas, etc. We can leverage the directory service to provide attributes though, and have that central phone book of user and group memberships we’ve come to depend on directory services to provide.
To get started, open the Package Center and search for Directory. Click Install for the Directory Server and the package will be installed on the Synology.
When the setup is complete, open the Directory Server from the launcher available in the upper right hand corner of the screen.
The LDAP server isn’t yet running as you need to configure a few settings before starting. At the Settings screen, you can enable the LDAP service by checking the box to “Enable LDAP Service” and providing the hostname (FQDN) of the service along with a password.
Once the service is configured, you’ll have a base DN and a bind DN. These are generated based on the name provided in that FQDN field. For example, if the FQDN is “synology.krypted.com”, its Base DN will be “dc=synology,dc=krypted,dc=com”. And the Bind DN would add a lookup starting a root, then moving into the users container and then the hostname: uid=root,cn=users,dc=synology,dc=krypted,dc=com
If this is for internal use, then it’s all setup. If you’ll be binding external services to this LDAP instance, make sure to open ports 389 (for LDAP) and/or 636 (for LDAP over SSL) as well.
Once you have information in the service, you’ll want to back it up. Click on Backup and Restore. Then click on Configure.
At the Configure screen, choose a destination.
I prefer using a directory I can then backup with another tool. Once you have defined a place to store your backups using the Destination field, choose a maximum number of backups and configure a schedule for the backups to run (by default backups run at midnight). Then click OK. You now have a functional LDAP service. To create Groups, click on the Group in the left sidebar.
Here, you can easily create groups by clicking on the Create button. At the wizard, provide a group name and then enter the name of a group (accounting in this example).
Click Next, then Apply to finish creating the group. One you have created your groups, click on User to start entering your users. Click Create. At the User Information screen, enter the name, a description if needed, and the password for a user. You can also restrict password changes and set an expiration for accounts. Click Next to create the user.
At the next screen, choose what groups the new user will be in and click Next.
Enter any extended attributes at the next screen, if you so choose (useful for directories).
Click Next and then Apply.
For smaller workgroups, you now have a functional LDAP service! If you’d like a nice gui to access more options, look at FUM (
https://github.com/futurice/futurice-ldap-user-manager ), LAM ( https://www.ldap-account-manager.org/lamcms/ ), LinID ( http://www.linid.org/welcome/index.html )or other tools. I wrote an article on LDAP SACLs awhile back, so I’ll try and track that down and update it for Synology soon!
krypted April 5th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X Server, Synology
Apple, MAC, macos, macos server, migrate, move open directory to openldap, OpenLDAP, SACL, setup, users
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/etc/Sudoers is a file that controls what happens when you use sudo. /etc/sudo_lecture is a file that Apple includes in macOS that tells your users that what they’re about to do is dangerous. You can enable a lecture, which will be displayed each time sudo is invoked. To turn on the lecture option in sudo, open /etc/sudoers and add the following two lines (if they’re not already there):
Defaults lecture_file = “/etc/sudo_lecture”
Then save the file and edit /etc/sudo_lecture. Apple has kindly included the following
Warning: Improper use of the sudo command could lead to data loss or the deletion of important system files. Please double-check your typing when using sudo. Type “man sudo” for more information. To proceed, enter your password, or type Ctrl-C to abort.
Let’s change this to:
Hack the planet.
Now save and open a new Terminal screen. Run sudo bash and viola, you will get your new message. Enjoy.
krypted April 1st, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security
disable, enable, lecture, MAC, sudoers, sudo_lecture
Don’t let the name fool you, RADIUS, or Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service is more widely used today than ever before. This protocol enables remote access to servers and networks and is frequently a fundamental building block of VPNs, wireless networks and other high-security services that have nothing to do with dialup bulletin boards from the 80s.
I’ve run RADIUS services on Mac servers for years. But as that code starts to become stale and no longer supported, let’s look at running a basic RADIUS service on a network appliance, such as a Synology. To get started, open Package Manager, click All in the sidebar and then search for RADIUS.
Click Install for the RADIUS service.
Once installed, open RADIUS Server from the application menu in the upper left hand corner of the screen.
The options aren’t like raccoon. You can select a port, choose a directory service (which covers the authentication and a bit of the authorization portions of RADIUS. Click Clients and then Add.
Here you can configure a shared secret for a client, and allow for the source IP and netmask. To grab your certificate for deployment to clients, open the Control Panel, then Security, then Certificate and export the .p12. If you’re using this RADIUS service to enable other services for Macs, you’ll likely then want to distribute that certificate in a profile. We’ll cover how to leverage RADIUS for other services in other articles.
krypted March 31st, 2018
Posted In: Synology
Apple, MAC, p12, Radius, Synology
Services that run on a Synology are constantly being updated. Software updates for the binaries and other artifacts can quickly and easily be updated. To do so, open the Synology web interface and then open Package Center. From Package Center, click Update for each or Update All to upgrade all services at once, as seen below.
You will then be prompted to verify that you want to run the update.
Any services that are being updated will restart and so end users might find those services unresponsive or have to log back in after the service comes back online.
krypted March 27th, 2018
Posted In: Network Infrastructure, Small Business, Synology
Apple, MAC, macos, NetApp, network appliance, packages, Synology
The WD MyCloud is a pretty single-purpose device. It’s a disk with a network interface, and as with Direct Attached Storage, the MyCloud Network Attached Storage is pretty easy to connect to.
First, let’s look at connecting to the web interface via the menu item, where you can drag and drop files to the device. Once the device is configured, use the WD menu item to see your device. From there, click on the name of your device.
Alternatively, you could visit mycloud.com and sign into the web interface there.
In both cases, you’ll see a list of files and then in the sidebar, you’ll see those options to configure settings, add integrations, view active its, and view photos that are on the device.
From here, you can simply drag and drop files into the web page, just like with a box or dropbox account, but the files are stored on the device. Additionally, you can send a link to a file or folder. To do so, right-click on the object you wish to share and then click Share Link.
At the resulting screen, you’ll see a link. Click Copy to copy the link into your clipboard so you can paste it into an email.
You may also want other users to be able to log into your WD MyCloud. To allow them to do so, open Settings and click on Add User. Then provide the email address for the user and click on Send Invites.
Finally, you can also mount the drive directly to computers. To do so, click on “Connect to Server” (or Command-K) from the Finder.
At the Connect to Server screen, enter the address of the server and click Connect. If you don’t know the address and you’re on the local network of the device. Additionally, if you have the menu item installed, you’ll see the device in the sidebar of your Mac.
It’s worth noting that with the exception of the ability to share a link to a file or folder, the permissions on the device are pretty much wide open, as you can see below. Additionally, any files you bring into the device will end up with the same wide open permissions. And while you can change permissions on files, they’ll revert back. So if you will need more granular capabilities with file permissions, this might not be the device for you. This device is a very inexpensive way to do very small workgroups or home file sharing, but beyond that it could be too basic for a lot of business use cases. What I like about it though, is that it doesn’t pretend to be anything but what it is. And it does that very well, in a very easy-to-use way.
Now the MyCloud NAS comes with removable drives and a more robust interface. It’s still easy to use, but you can configure RAID levels, basic iSCSI functionality, and users. I still wouldn’t put this in front of large workgroups, but to replace a macOS Server for a small business, or as a basic NAS head, it’s a solid, easy-to-manage device.
krypted March 19th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Network Infrastructure
Apple, configure sharing, file sharing, MAC, wd mycloud
macOS might be the easiest platform to install MySQL on. To do so, simply download the MySQL installation package from the MySQL Download site. I like to use the third link (the DMG).
Once downloaded, run the package. The package will ask you a few questions and you can easily just select the default choice during the installation process.
Once installed, you’ll be prompted that a temporary password has been used for your MySQL instance.
The password will get you in the first time, so you can change it. Once you have documented the password, open System Preferences and click on MySQL in the bottom row of System Preference Panes.
Click Start MySQL Server and then when prompted, authenticate to the system. If you’d like to do this programmatically and don’t need the System Preference pane, you can do so with homebrew. If you have homebrew installed, simply run the brew command with the install verb and mysql as the package:
brew install mysql
Whichever way you install SQL, once installed, you’ll want to set the root password to something other than the intuitionally difficult to remember password provided at install time. To do so, first connect to the mysql instance now running on your computer. As the tools are installed in /usr/local/mysql/bin, run the following:
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -u root
Then, set the password using the ALTER statement along with the USER option and then the username followed by IDENTIFIED BY and ultimately the password, as follows:
ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY
Once done, you’ll then be able to connect to mysql normally.
krypted March 18th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server
Export macOS Server Data
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We’re not going to import this, as it only takes a few seconds to configure new settings. Additionally, if you have outstanding services built on macOS Server, you might be able to pull this off without touching client systems. First, let’s grab which protocols are enabled, running the following from Terminal:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:enabled
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled
Next, we’ll get the the IP ranges used so we can mimic those (or change them) in the new service:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges
Now let’s grab the DNS servers handed out so those can be recreated:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index
Finally, if you’re using L2TP, let’s grab the shared secret:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:L2TP:IPSecSharedSecretValue
Once we have all of this information, we can configure the new server using the same settings. At this point, you can decide whether you want to dismantle the old server and setup a new one on the same IP address, or whether you’d rather just change your port forwards on your router/firewall.
Before we configure any VPN services, let’s talk about ports. The following ports need to be opened per The Official iVPN Help Docs
(these are likely already open if you’re using a macOS Server to provide VPN services):
- PPTP: TCP port 1723
- L2TP: UDP ports 1701, 4500 and 500
- Enable VPN pass-through on the firewall of the server and client if needed
There are a number of ways to get a VPN Server installed on macOS. One would be to install openvpn:
sudo port -v install openvpn2
OpenVPN has a lot of sweet options, which you can read about at openvpn.net
One of the other tools Apple mentioned is SoftEther. I decided not to cover it here because it uses Wine. And I’m not a fan of Wine.
Or Use iVPN
That will require some work to get dependencies and some working with files and network settings. Another option would be to install iVPN from here, on the Mac App Store
. You can install it manually as well, and if you do, you’ll need to pay separately through PayPal, which is what we’ll cover here.
Once installed, if you purchased the license separately, use the Enter Manually button to provide it.
At the Registration screen, make sure the name, email, and serial are entered exactly as you see them in the email you received.
At the Thank You screen, click OK.
At the EULA screen, click Accept assuming you accept the license agreement.Configure iVPN
At the main screen, you’ll have a few options, which we’ll unpack here:
- Use Directory Server: Allows you to use an LDAP or Active Directory connection to provide username and passwords to the service.
- Use custom accounts: Allows you to manually enter accounts to provide username and passwords for clients to connect to the
- Shared Secret: The secret, or a second factor used with L2TP connection.
- Allow 40-bit encryption keys: Allows clients to use lower levels of encryption. Let’s not do this.
- IP Address Range: The beginning and ending IP that will be manually handed out to client computers. When configuring the range, take care not to enter a range of addresses in use by any other DHCP services on your network or you will end up with conflicts.
- Basic DNS: Allows you to configure a primary and second DNS server to send to clients via DHCP when they connect to the VPN interface.
- Advanced DNS: Allows you to configure DNS servers as well as Search Domains.
- Configure Static Routes: Allows you to specify the interface and netmask used to access a given IP.
- Export Configuration Profile: Exports a configuration profile. When imported into a Mac or iOS device, that profile automatically configures the connection to the PPTP or L2TP service you’ve setup.
- VPN Host Name: Used for the configuration profile so a client system can easily find the server w
If you configure Directory Authentication, you’ll get prompted that it might be buggy. Click OK here.
The Directory Authentication screen allows you to choose which directory services to make available to PPTP or L2TP. If the system hasn’t been authenticated to a directory server, do so using the Users & Groups” System Preference pane.
Once you’ve chosen your directory service configuration, if you require a third DNS server, click on Advanced DNS and then enter it, or any necessary search-domains. Click Done when you’re finished.
Click the log button in the upper left-hand side to see the logs for the service. This is super-helpful when you start troubleshooting client connections or if the daemon stops for no good reason (other than the fact that you’re still running a VPN service on macOS Server and so the socket can’t bind to the appropriate network port).
Finally, you can also create a static route. Static routing provides a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from a dynamic routing traffic, which means you can fix issues where a client can’t access a given IP because it’s using an incorrect network interface to access an IP.
Once everything is configure, let’s enter the publicly accessible IP address or DNS name of the server. Client computers that install the profile will then have their connection to the server automatically configured and will be able to test the connection.Configure Clients
If you configured the new server exactly as the old one and just forwarded ports to the new host, you might not have to do anything, assuming you’re using the same username and password store (like a directory service) on the back-end. If you didn’t, you can setup new interfaces with a profile. If you pushed out an old profile to configure those, I’d recommend removing it first if any settings need to change. To configure clients, we’ll install the new profile. When you open the profile on a client system (just double-click it to open it), you’ll see the Install dialog box. Here, click on Continue.
Because the profile isn’t signed, you’ll then get prompted again (note: you can sign the profile using another tool, like an MDM or Apple Configurator). Click Continue.
Then enter the username that will be used to connect to the VPN and click the Install button.
The Profile can then be viewed and manually removed if needed.
Click on the new iVPN entry in the Network System Preference pane. Here, you can enable
Now that it’s easy, let’s click the VPN icon in the menu bar and then click on Connect iVPN to test the connection.
Once clients can connect, you can use the iVPN icon in the menu bar to monitor the status of clients.
krypted March 14th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security
hoot, Ivpn, l2tp, MAC, macos server, pptp, server, vpn