Tag Archives: en0

Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security Mass Deployment Network Infrastructure

Mac Network Commands Cheat Sheet

After writing up the presentation for MacSysAdmin in Sweden, I decided to go ahead and throw these into a quick cheat sheet for anyone who’d like to have them all in one place. Good luck out there, and stay salty.

Get an ip address for en0:

ipconfig getifaddr en0

Same thing, but setting and echoing a variable:

ip=`ipconfig getifaddr en0` ; echo $ip

View the subnet mask of en0:

ipconfig getoption en0 subnet_mask

View the dns server for en0:

ipconfig getoption en0 domain_name_server

Get information about how en0 got its dhcp on:

ipconfig getpacket en1

View some network info:

ifconfig en0

Set en0 to have an ip address of 10.10.10.10 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0:

ifconfig en0 inet 10.10.10.10 netmask 255.255.255.0

Show a list of locations on the computer:

networksetup -listlocations

Obtain the active location the system is using:

networksetup -getcurrentlocation

Create a network location called Work and populate it with information from the active network connection:

networksetup -createlocation Work populate

Delete a network location called Work:

networksetup -deletelocation Work

Switch the active location to a location called Work:

networksetup -switchlocation Work

Switch the active location to a location called Work, but also show the GUID of that location so we can make scripties with it laters:

scselect Work

List all of the network interfaces on the system:

networksetup -listallnetworkservices

Rename the network service called Ethernet to the word Wired:

networksetup -renamenetworkservice Ethernet Wired

Disable a network interface:

networksetup -setnetworkserviceenabled off

Change the order of your network services:

networksetup -ordernetworkservices “Wi-Fi” “USB Ethernet”

Set the interface called Wi-Fi to obtain it if it isn’t already

networksetup -setdhcp Wi-Fi

Renew dhcp leases:

ipconfig set en1 BOOTP && ipconfig set en1 DHCP
ifconfig en1 down && ifconfig en1 up

Renew a dhcp lease in a script:

echo "add State:/Network/Interface/en0/RefreshConfiguration temporary" | sudo scutil

Configure a manual static ip address:

networksetup -setmanual Wi-Fi 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1

Configure the dns servers for a given network interface:

networksetup -setdnsservers Wi-Fi 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3

Obtain the dns servers used on the Wi-Fi interface:

networksetup -getdnsservers Wi-Fi

Stop the application layer firewall:

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.alf.useragent.plist
launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.alf.agent.plist

Start the application layer firewall:

launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.alf.agent.plist
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.alf.useragent.plist

Allow an app to communicate outside the system through the application layer firewall:

socketfilterfw -t
“/Applications/FileMaker Pro/FileMaker Pro.app/Contents/MacOS/FileMaker Pro”

See the routing table of a Mac:

netstat -nr

Add a route so that traffic for 10.0.0.0/32 communicates over the 10.0.9.2 network interface:

route -n add 10.0.0.0/32 10.0.9.2

Log bonjour traffic at the packet level:

sudo killall -USR2 mDNSResponder

Stop Bonjour:

launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist


Start Bojour:

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist

Put a delay in your pings:

ping -i 5 192.168.210.1

Ping the hostname 5 times and then stop the ping:

ping -c 5 google.com

Flood ping the host:

ping -f localhost

Set the packet size during your ping:

ping -s 100 google.com

Customize the source IP during your ping:

ping -S 10.10.10.11 google.com

View disk performance:

iostat -d disk0

Get information about the airport connection on your system:

/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/A/Resources/airport -I

Scan the available Wireless networks:

/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/A/Resources/airport -s

Trace the path packets go through:

traceroute google.com

Trace the routes without looking up names:

traceroute -n google.com

Trace a route in debug mode:

traceroute -d google.com

View information on all sockets:

netstat -at

View network information for ipv6:

netstat -lt

View per protocol network statistics:

netstat -s

View the statistics for a specific network protocol:

netstat -p igmp

Show statistics for network interfaces:

netstat -i

View network information as it happens (requires ntop to be installed):

ntop

Scan port 80 of www.google.com

/System/Library/CoreServices/Applications/Network\ Utility.app/Contents/Resources/stroke www.google.com 80 80

Port scan krypted.com stealthily:

nmap -sS -O krypted.com/24

Establish a network connection with www.apple.com:

nc -v www.apple.com 80

Establish a network connection with gateway.push.apple.com over port 2195

/usr/bin/nc -v -w 15 gateway.push.apple.com 2195

Establish a network connection with feedback.push.apple.com only allowing ipv4

/usr/bin/nc -v -4 feedback.push.apple.com 2196

Setup a network listener on port 2196 for testing:

/usr/bin/nc -l 2196

Capture some packets:

tcpdump -nS

Capture all the packets:

tcpdump -nnvvXS

Capture the packets for a given port:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548

Capture all the packets for a given port going to a given destination of 10.0.0.48:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548 dst 10.0.0.48

Capture the packets as above but dump to a pcap file:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548 dst 10.0.0.48 -w /tmp/myfile.pcap

Read tcpdump (cap) files and try to make them human readable:

tcpdump -qns 0 -A -r /var/tmp/capture.pcap

What binaries have what ports and in what states are those ports:

lsof -n -i4TCP

Make an alias for looking at what has a listener open, called ports:

alias ports='lsof -n -i4TCP | grep LISTEN'

Report back the name of the system:

hostname

Flush the dns cache:

dscacheutil -flushcache

Clear your arp cache:

arp -ad

View how the Server app interprets your network settings:

serveradmin settings network

Whitelist the ip address 10.10.10.2:

/Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/usr/libexec/afctl -w 10.10.10.2

Finally, the script network_info.sh shows information about a Macs network configuration. Both active and inactive network interfaces are listed, in the order that they are used by the OS and with a lot of details (MAC-address, interface name, router, subnet mask etc.).

Network Infrastructure VMware

Change the IP/Host Name on ESX iSCSI Initiators

Setting up iSCSI to work with ESX is usually a pretty straight forward affair. But like with many things, change can be hard. But sometimes things get moved to different subnets or storage gets replaced. To configure a vSphere client to connect, select a virtual machine and then click on it and click on the Configuration tab. From there, click on Storage Adapters using the Hardware panel.

From the Hardware Panel, click on an initiator and then click on Properties and then click on Configure. Then provide the new name or IP. Make sure that the name is unique and then if needed provide an iSCSI alias. Then change the IP settings if needed and click on save. New iSCSI sessions can be used immediately whereas old sessions will require you to logout and then log back in.

Mac OS X Mass Deployment

Importing Computers Into DeployStudio

DeployStudio has the ability to import a csv file that is populated with the MAC address and a few specific settings. This allows you to prepopulate the database with the names that you want each machine to have. If you purchase a lot of machines from Apple then you can get a list of MAC addresses, or, you can use a bar code scanner to scan them as you’re unboxing.

If you have a list of MAC addresses (en0), then you will need to format them in a very specific manner. Here, I have included a sample csv file with the data that goes into each field, which I have name DSImporter.csv.

Once you paste the data that you’d like into the csv, provide the computer names (these can be pasted or compiled using formulas). Once done, save and then open Deploy Studio Admin. From here, click on Computers and then (as you would with iTunes) click on the plus sign (+) and create a new computer list (this step is optional, but I prefer to always import into computer lists, just in case something goes wrong, especially with my first import). Once you have created the computer list, you should see a screen similar to the following.

Next, click on the Server menu and select Import.

Now browse to your csv file and then click on the Import button. When the import is complete you will see a screen informing you as such. Click on the Done button to complete the process.

You will then see your computers listed in the database and should see the names that you assigned them listed as well. You can now set a workflow item in DeployStudio for Reconfigure system with computers database content (shown below). This will set the name (and any other fields you decided to use) from the spreadsheet that you imported into the computer list.

Once you have your computers in a group, you can also set a default workflow for them for their first time imaging, by clicking on the name of the group and then clicking on the Automation tab at the bottom as you can see below.

Here, you will set the workflow to run and optionally set the computer to not have a default workflow moving forward or just be disabled so users can’t accidentally reimage their computers later.

If you don’t have the MAC addresses for your computers ahead of time, you can use the Hostname option instead.

This will enable you to enter the computer name that you would like to use moving forward into the DeployStudio Runtime at imaging and then have it stored in the DeployStudio database, where it can be used to build future workflows or even be exported and imported into the Open Directory computers.

Overall, the computers and groups in DeployStudio Admin can be used to design more and more complex imaging sequences and to provide much of the scripting logic that a number of organizations need. Beyond that, JAMF, FileWave and a few other solutions offer even more logic and even more features or a little shell scripting can take you a really long way.