Tag Archives: Command line

Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security

qlmanage

QuickLook scans file contents before you open those files. Usually this just lets you view a file quickly. But you can also use this same technology from the command line to bring about a change to the Finder without actually opening a file. To access QuickLook from the command line, use qlmanage.

qlmanage -p ~/Desktop/MyTowel42.pdf

While open, click the space bar to go back to your Terminal session. The most notable use case here is that when you use qlmanage you don’t run the risk of changing the date/time stamp of the files.

iPhone Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security Mass Deployment

Using The Profiles Command In Yosemite

You can export profiles from Apple Configurator or Profile Manager (or some of the 3rd party MDM tools). You can then install profiles by just opening them and installing. Once profiles are installed on a Mac, mdmclient, a binary located in /usr/libexec will process changes such as wiping a system that has been FileVaulted (note you need to FileVault if you want to wipe an OS X Lion client computer). /System/Library/LaunchDaemons and /System/Library/LaunchAgents has a mdmclient daemon and agent respectively that start it up automatically.

To script profile deployment, administrators can add and remove configuration profiles using the new /usr/bin/profiles command. To see all profiles, aggregated, use the profiles command with just the -P option:

/usr/bin/profiles -P

As with managed preferences (and piggy backing on managed preferences for that matter), configuration profiles can be assigned to users or computers. To see just user profiles, use the -L option:

/usr/bin/profiles -L

You can remove all profiles using -D:

/usr/bin/profiles -D

The -I option installs profiles and the -R removes profiles. Use -p to indicate the profile is from a server or -F to indicate it’s source is a file. To remove a profile:

/usr/bin/profiles -R -F /tmp/HawkeyesTrickshot.mobileconfig

To remove one from a server:

/usr/bin/profiles -R -p com.WestCoastAvengers.HawkeyesTrickshot

The following installs HawkeyesTrickshot.mobileconfig from /tmp:

/usr/bin/profiles -I -F /tmp/HawkeyesTrickshot.mobileconfig

If created in Profile Manager:

/usr/bin/profiles -I -p com.WestCoastAvengers.HawkeyesTrickshot

There is a nifty new feature in the profiles command in Yosemite where you can configure profiles to install at the next boot, rather than immediately. Use the -s to define a startup profile and take note that if it fails, the profile will attempt to install at each subsequent reboot until installed. To use the command, simply add a -s then the -F for the profile and the -f to automatically confirm, as follows (and I like to throw in a -v usually for good measure):

profiles -s -F /Profiles/SuperAwesome.mobileconfig -f -v

And that’s it. Nice and easy and you now have profiles that only activate when a computer is started up. As of OS X Yosemite, the dscl command has extensions for dealing with profiles as well. These include the available MCX Profile Extensions:

-profileimport -profiledelete -profilelist [optArgs]
-profileexport
-profilehelp

To list all profiles from an Open Directory object, use 
-profilelist. To run, follow the dscl command with -u to specify a user, -P to specify the password for the user, then the IP address of the OD server (or name of the AD object), then the profilelist verb, then the relative path. Assuming a username of diradmin for the directory, a password of moonknight and then cedge user:

dscl -u diradmin -P moonknight 192.168.210.201 profilelist /LDAPv3/127.0.0.1/Users/cedge

To delete that information for the given user, swap the profilelist extension with profiledelete:

dscl -u diradmin -P apple 192.168.210.201 profilelist /LDAPv3/127.0.0.1/Users/cedge

If you would rather export all information to a directory called ProfileExports on the root of the drive:

dscl -u diradmin -P moonknight 192.168.210.201 profileexport . all -o /ProfileExports

Note: Provisioning profiles can also be managed, frequently using the lower-case variant of installation and removal (e.g. -i to install, -r to remove, -c to list and -d to delete all provisioning profiles). Provisioning profiles can also come with a -u option to show the uuid. Finally, the -V option verifies a provisioning profile.

In Yosemite we have a few new options, such as -H which shows whether a profile was installed, -z to define a removal password and -o to output a file path for removal information. Also, in Yosemite it seems as though if a configuration profile was pushed to you from MDM, you can’t remove it (fyi, I love having the word fail as a standalone in verbose output):

bash-3.2# profiles -P
_computerlevel[1] attribute: profileIdentifier: 772BED54-5EDF-4987-94B9-654456CF0B9A
_computerlevel[2] attribute: profileIdentifier: 00000000-0000-0000-A000-4A414D460003
_computerlevel[3] attribute: profileIdentifier: C11672D9-9AE2-4F09-B789-70D5678CB397
charlesedge[4] attribute: profileIdentifier: com.krypted.office365.a5f0e328-ea86-11e3-a26c-6476bab5f328
charlesedge[5] attribute: profileIdentifier: odr.krypted.com.ADD7E5A6-8EED-4B11-8470-C56C8DC1E2E6
_computerlevel[6] attribute: profileIdentifier: EE08ABE9-5CB8-48E3-8E02-E46AD0A03783
_computerlevel[7] attribute: profileIdentifier: F3C87B6E-185C-4F28-9BA7-6E02EACA37B1
_computerlevel[8] attribute: profileIdentifier: 24DA416D-093A-4E2E-9E6A-FEAD74B8B0F0
There are 8 configuration profiles installed

bash-3.2# profiles -r 772BED54-5EDF-4987-94B9-654456CF0B9A
bash-3.2# profiles -P
_computerlevel[1] attribute: profileIdentifier: F3C87B6E-185C-4F28-9BA7-6E02EACA37B1
_computerlevel[2] attribute: profileIdentifier: EE08ABE9-5CB8-48E3-8E02-E46AD0A03783
_computerlevel[3] attribute: profileIdentifier: 24DA416D-093A-4E2E-9E6A-FEAD74B8B0F0
_computerlevel[4] attribute: profileIdentifier: 00000000-0000-0000-A000-4A414D460003
_computerlevel[5] attribute: profileIdentifier: 772BED54-5EDF-4987-94B9-654456CF0B9A
_computerlevel[6] attribute: profileIdentifier: C11672D9-9AE2-4F09-B789-70D5678CB397
charlesedge[7] attribute: profileIdentifier: odr.krypted.com.ADD7E5A6-8EED-4B11-8470-C56C8DC1E2E6
charlesedge[8] attribute: profileIdentifier: com.krypted.office365.a5f0e328-ea86-11e3-a26c-6476bab5f328
There are 8 configuration profiles installed

bash-3.2# profiles -rv 772BED54-5EDF-4987-94B9-654456CF0B9A
profiles: verbose mode ON
profiles: returned error: -204
fail

Mac OS X Mac OS X Server Mac Security Mass Deployment Network Infrastructure

Mac Network Commands Cheat Sheet

After writing up the presentation for MacSysAdmin in Sweden, I decided to go ahead and throw these into a quick cheat sheet for anyone who’d like to have them all in one place. Good luck out there, and stay salty.

Get an ip address for en0:

ipconfig getifaddr en0

Same thing, but setting and echoing a variable:

ip=`ipconfig getifaddr en0` ; echo $ip

View the subnet mask of en0:

ipconfig getoption en0 subnet_mask

View the dns server for en0:

ipconfig getoption en0 domain_name_server

Get information about how en0 got its dhcp on:

ipconfig getpacket en1

View some network info:

ifconfig en0

Set en0 to have an ip address of 10.10.10.10 and a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0:

ifconfig en0 inet 10.10.10.10 netmask 255.255.255.0

Show a list of locations on the computer:

networksetup -listlocations

Obtain the active location the system is using:

networksetup -getcurrentlocation

Create a network location called Work and populate it with information from the active network connection:

networksetup -createlocation Work populate

Delete a network location called Work:

networksetup -deletelocation Work

Switch the active location to a location called Work:

networksetup -switchlocation Work

Switch the active location to a location called Work, but also show the GUID of that location so we can make scripties with it laters:

scselect Work

List all of the network interfaces on the system:

networksetup -listallnetworkservices

Rename the network service called Ethernet to the word Wired:

networksetup -renamenetworkservice Ethernet Wired

Disable a network interface:

networksetup -setnetworkserviceenabled off

Change the order of your network services:

networksetup -ordernetworkservices “Wi-Fi” “USB Ethernet”

Set the interface called Wi-Fi to obtain it if it isn’t already

networksetup -setdhcp Wi-Fi

Renew dhcp leases:

ipconfig set en1 BOOTP && ipconfig set en1 DHCP
ifconfig en1 down && ifconfig en1 up

Renew a dhcp lease in a script:

echo "add State:/Network/Interface/en0/RefreshConfiguration temporary" | sudo scutil

Configure a manual static ip address:

networksetup -setmanual Wi-Fi 10.0.0.2 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1

Configure the dns servers for a given network interface:

networksetup -setdnsservers Wi-Fi 10.0.0.2 10.0.0.3

Obtain the dns servers used on the Wi-Fi interface:

networksetup -getdnsservers Wi-Fi

Stop the application layer firewall:

launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.alf.useragent.plist
launchctl unload /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.alf.agent.plist

Start the application layer firewall:

launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.alf.agent.plist
launchctl load /System/Library/LaunchAgents/com.apple.alf.useragent.plist

Allow an app to communicate outside the system through the application layer firewall:

socketfilterfw -t
“/Applications/FileMaker Pro/FileMaker Pro.app/Contents/MacOS/FileMaker Pro”

See the routing table of a Mac:

netstat -nr

Add a route so that traffic for 10.0.0.0/32 communicates over the 10.0.9.2 network interface:

route -n add 10.0.0.0/32 10.0.9.2

Log bonjour traffic at the packet level:

sudo killall -USR2 mDNSResponder

Stop Bonjour:

launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist


Start Bojour:

launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/com.apple.mDNSResponder.plist

Put a delay in your pings:

ping -i 5 192.168.210.1

Ping the hostname 5 times and then stop the ping:

ping -c 5 google.com

Flood ping the host:

ping -f localhost

Set the packet size during your ping:

ping -s 100 google.com

Customize the source IP during your ping:

ping -S 10.10.10.11 google.com

View disk performance:

iostat -d disk0

Get information about the airport connection on your system:

/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/A/Resources/airport -I

Scan the available Wireless networks:

/System/Library/PrivateFrameworks/Apple80211.framework/Versions/A/Resources/airport -s

Trace the path packets go through:

traceroute google.com

Trace the routes without looking up names:

traceroute -n google.com

Trace a route in debug mode:

traceroute -d google.com

View information on all sockets:

netstat -at

View network information for ipv6:

netstat -lt

View per protocol network statistics:

netstat -s

View the statistics for a specific network protocol:

netstat -p igmp

Show statistics for network interfaces:

netstat -i

View network information as it happens (requires ntop to be installed):

ntop

Scan port 80 of www.google.com

/System/Library/CoreServices/Applications/Network\ Utility.app/Contents/Resources/stroke www.google.com 80 80

Port scan krypted.com stealthily:

nmap -sS -O krypted.com/24

Establish a network connection with www.apple.com:

nc -v www.apple.com 80

Establish a network connection with gateway.push.apple.com over port 2195

/usr/bin/nc -v -w 15 gateway.push.apple.com 2195

Establish a network connection with feedback.push.apple.com only allowing ipv4

/usr/bin/nc -v -4 feedback.push.apple.com 2196

Setup a network listener on port 2196 for testing:

/usr/bin/nc -l 2196

Capture some packets:

tcpdump -nS

Capture all the packets:

tcpdump -nnvvXS

Capture the packets for a given port:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548

Capture all the packets for a given port going to a given destination of 10.0.0.48:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548 dst 10.0.0.48

Capture the packets as above but dump to a pcap file:

tcpdump -nnvvXs 548 dst 10.0.0.48 -w /tmp/myfile.pcap

Read tcpdump (cap) files and try to make them human readable:

tcpdump -qns 0 -A -r /var/tmp/capture.pcap

What binaries have what ports and in what states are those ports:

lsof -n -i4TCP

Make an alias for looking at what has a listener open, called ports:

alias ports='lsof -n -i4TCP | grep LISTEN'

Report back the name of the system:

hostname

Flush the dns cache:

dscacheutil -flushcache

Clear your arp cache:

arp -ad

View how the Server app interprets your network settings:

serveradmin settings network

Whitelist the ip address 10.10.10.2:

/Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/usr/libexec/afctl -w 10.10.10.2

Finally, the script network_info.sh shows information about a Macs network configuration. Both active and inactive network interfaces are listed, in the order that they are used by the OS and with a lot of details (MAC-address, interface name, router, subnet mask etc.).

Mac OS X Mac Security Network Infrastructure

Bringing stroke Back

Stroke got moved, so dug this up and am reprinting with the latest and greatest location.

Network Utility has a port scanner – it’s built in and really easy to use. Sure, stroke isn’t nmap, but it’s not trying to be… Since Network Utility is distributed with every copy of Mac OS X it stands to reason that every copy of Mac OS X has the ability to scan a port without using a GUI tool.  Enter one of the best named tools in Mac OS X, stroke.  Stroke is the command line back-end to the Port Scan tab of Network Utility.  To use stroke, you will need to cd into the Network Utility application bundle and then cd into Contents and then Resources.

Once you are at “/System/Library/CoreServices/Applications/Network Utility.app/Contents/Resources”, you will need to provide stroke with an IP address (or name), followed by the first port to scan and then the last (or the same number twice if your range is only one IP address.  For example, if you want to port scan port 80 on your own system you could use the following:

./stroke 127.0.0.1 80 80

But you shouldn’t just stroke yourself (sorry, couldn’t help it).  You should also stroke others (Clarence Carter be damned!).  So if you want to port scan www.google.com for port 80 the following would achieve such a lofty goal:

./stroke www.google.com 80 80

Because the name www.google.com has to resolve, you’re actually able to check whether a DNS error occurs and whether you can communicate over port 80 to the host in one command.  If you want to make a copy of stroke into a directory and then add it to your environment variable’s PATH you can then use it without needing to change your working directory.

Uncategorized

Bring Out Yer Apps with Autopkg! (Maybe with a little help)

(Guest post by Allister Banks)

Working with modern tools in the ‘auto'(dmg/pkg) suite, it sure reinforces the old chestnut, ‘it’s turtles XML all the way down.’ The thing that struck me when first diving into using autopkg was that different product recipes could potentially have a good amount of similarities when they share common processors. One example is drag-drop apps that can be discovered with an ‘appcast’ URL, which, in my recollection, became common as the Sparkle framework gained popularity.

This commonality is exactly the type of thing sysadmins like myself seek to automate, so I built a few helper scripts to 1. discover what apps have appcast URLs, 2. generate the base download recipe, and further, the 3. pkg-building recipe that can use the download recipe as a ‘parent’, and the 4. munki or JSS recipes which can nest the pkg recipe in it. Recursivity is the new black.

screnshotsOfCode

Please do take a look if you feel you’ve got apps that folks haven’t built recipes for yet, and laugh at/use/fork my code as you see fit!

Microsoft Exchange Server Windows Server Windows XP

Check It Ma, Logz For Dayz

On a Mac, I frequently use the tail command to view files as they’re being written to or in use. You can use the Get-EventLog cmdlet to view logs. The Get-EventLog cmdlet has two options I’ll point out in this article. The first is -list and -newest.

The first is used to view a list of event logs, along with retention cycles for logs, log sizes, etc.

Get-EventLog -list

You can then take any of the log types and view information about them. To see System information:

Get-EventLog System

There will be too much information in many of these cases, so use the -newest option to see just the latest:

Get-EventLog system -newest 5

The list will have an Index number and an EventID. The EventID can then be used to research information about each error code. For example, at http://eventid.net.

Mac OS X Mac Security Mass Deployment

Reindex Spotlight from the Command Line

Spotlight is really a simple tool. Spotlight consists of mds, a command that is the metadata server, mdworker, the pawn that mds sends to scan objects and index them and then the three command lines of mdutil (manage the indexes), mdls (list metadata of an object) and mdfind, which as the name implies, finds things. All of this is used to keep a database called .store.db nested under .Spotlight-V100 at the root of each volume that’s been indexed.

Screen Shot 2013-11-14 at 9.39.09 PM

To reindex Spotlight from the command line, we’ll use mdutil. From a command prompt, enter the following to index your boot volume.

sudo mdutil -E /

Or an external drive named krypted:

sudo mdutil -E /Volumes/krypted

When indexing, you will see the mds and mdworker processes running. If the process does not seem to be completing timely, you can use lsof to see where it is in the process. If the indexing errors then try and manually reindex based on the file that you see from where it crapped out:

mdimport /Volumes/krypted/designingwomencollection/episode0101.mov

Or to mdimport the directory that might be problematic:

mdimport /Volumes/krypted/designingwomencollection

Finally, the attributes that are tracked by Spotlight are many. The metadata attributes themselves are typically in xattr. For example, Command Line Finder Tags (http://krypted.com/mac-os-x/command-line-finder-tags/).  To see the raw metadata for a file, use xattr:

xattr -l /Volumes/krypted/designingwomencollection/episodelist.pdf

The output of which would include the following:

com.apple.FinderInfo:
00000000  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 1C 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000010  00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000020
com.apple.metadata:_kMDItemUserTags:
00000000  62 70 6C 69 73 74 30 30 A1 01 55 52 65 64 0A 36  |bplist00..URed.6|
00000010  08 0A 00 00 00 00 00 00 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000020  00 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00  |................|
00000030  00 10                                            |..|
00000032
com.apple.quarantine: 0041;520d0314;Safari;

The more metadata (QuickTime and some other apps can put a lot of metadata in files btw) the more you’d see. You can assign metadata manually or even exclude directories from indexing if you see the system is stuck on indexing a given directory.

Windows Server Windows XP

Control Windows Firewall From The Command Line

The Windows Firewall is controlled using the netsh command along with the advfirewall option. This command is pretty easy to use, although knowing the syntax helps. The most basic thing you do is enable the firewall, done by issuing a set verb along with a profile (in this case we’ll use current profile) and then setting the state to on, as follows:

netsh advfirewall set currentprofile state on

Or if you were controlling the domain profile:

netsh advfirewall set domainprofile state on

You can also choose to set other options within a profile. So to set the firewall policy to always block inbound traffic and allow outgoing traffic, use the set currentprofile followed by firewallpolicy as the option to set and then blockinboundalways and allowoutbound delimited with a comma:

netsh advfirewall set currentprofile firewallpolicy blockinboundalways,allowoutbound

To restore information back to defaults, use the reset verb:

netsh advfirewall reset

To open incoming access to just the file and printer sharing services:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="File and Printer Sharing" new enable=Yes

Or remote desktop connections:

netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="remote desktop" new enable=Yes profile=domain

Because the Windows Firewall can be stageful, you can also allow a program to have access (in or out), as with the following app called SecureApp.exe:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Secure App" dir=in action=allow program="C:\Program Files\SecureApp.exe" enable=yes

Or to restrict that app:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Secure App" dir=in action=deny program="C:\Program Files\SecureApp.exe" enable=yes

You can also allow based on IP or range of IP by adding the remoteip variable:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Secure App" dir=in action=allow program="C:\Program Files\SecureApp.exe" enable=yes remoteip=206.13.28.12,LocalSubnet profile=domain

Or to open a specific port:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="Open SSL" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=443

Overall, the netsh advfirewall command is pretty easy to use and allows for a lot of programatic control of the Windows Firewall without having to learn a lot of complex scripting. And of course, to disable, feel free to just turn that on to an off from the initial command:

netsh advfirewall set currentprofile state off

Mac OS X Server

Enable SSH, ARD, SNMP & the Remote Server App Use In OS X Server (Mavericks)

SSH allows administrators to connect to another computer using a secure shell, or command line environment. ARD (Apple Remote Desktop) allows screen sharing, remote scripts and other administrative goodness. SNMP allows for remote monitoring of a server. You can also connect to a server using the Server app running on a client computer. To enable all of these except SNMP, open the Server app (Server 3), click on the name of the server, click the Settings tab and then click on the checkbox for what you’d like to enter.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.18.55 AM

All of these can be enabled and managed from the command line as well. The traditional way to enable Apple Remote Desktop is using the kickstart command. But there’s a simpler way in OS X Mavericks Server (Server 2.2). To do so, use the serveradmin command.

To enable ARD using the serveradmin command, use the settings option, with info:enableARD to set the payload to yes:

sudo serveradmin settings info:enableARD = yes

Once run, open System Preferences and click on Sharing. The Remote Management box is then checked and the local administrative user has access to ARD into the host.

Screen Shot 2013-10-05 at 9.15.00 AM

There are also a few other commands that can be used to control settings. To enable SSH for administrators:

sudo serveradmin settings info:enableSSH = yes

When you enable SSH from the serveradmin command you will not see any additional checkboxes in the Sharing System Preferences; however, you will see the box checked in the Server app.

To enable SNMP:

sudo serveradmin settings info:enableSNMP = yes

Once SNMP is enabled, use the /usr/bin/snmpconf interactive command line environment to configure SNMP so you can manage traps and other objects necessary.

Note: You can’t have snmpd running while you configure SNMPv3. Once SNMPv3 is configured snmpd can be run. 

To allow other computers to use the Server app to connect to the server, use the info:enableRemoteAdministration key from serveradmin:

sudo serveradmin settings info:enableRemoteAdministration = yes

To enable the dedication of resources to Server apps (aka Server Performance Mode):

sudo serveradmin settings info:enableServerPerformanceMode = yes