Profile Manager first appeared in OS X Lion Server as the Apple-provided tool for managing Apple devices, including Mobile Device Management (MDM) for iOS based devices as well as Profile management for OS X based computers, including MacBooks, MacBook Airs, Mac Minis, Mac Pros and iMacs running Mac OS X 10.7 and up. In OS X Mountain Lion, Apple added a number of new features to Profile Manager and revved the software to Profile Manager 2.0, most notably adding the ability to push certain types of apps to mobile devices. In Mavericks Server (Server 3), Apple provides new options and streamlined a bunch of things, most notably App Store and VPP integration. In subsequent releases (point releases) Apple also added DEP functionality and you can also now distribute content (in the form of books) to devices. In this article we’ll get Profile Manager setup and perform some basic tasks.
Preparing For Profile Manager
Before we get started, let’s prep the system for the service. This starts with configuring a static IP address and properly configuring a host name for the server. In this example, the hostname will be YosemiteSam.krypted.com. We’ll also be using a self-signed certificate, although it’s easy enough to generate a CSR and install it ahead of time. For the purposes of this example, we have installed Server from the App Store (and done nothing else with Server except open it the first time so it downloads all of its components from the web) and configured the static IP address using the Network System Preferences. Next, we’ll set the hostname using scutil.
sudo scutil --set HostName YosemiteSam.krypted.com
Then the ComputerName:
sudo scutil --set ComputerName YosemiteSam.krypted.com
And finally, the LocalHostName:
sudo scutil --set LocalHostName YosemiteSam
Now check changeip:
sudo changeip -checkhostname
The changeip command should output something similar to the following:
Primary address = 192.168.210.201
Current HostName = YosemiteSam.krypted.com
DNS HostName = YosemiteSam.krypted.com
The names match. There is nothing to change.
dirserv:success = "success"
f you don’t see the success and that the names match, you might have some DNS work to do next, according to whether you will be hosting DNS on this server as well. If you will be hosting your own DNS on the Profile Manager server, then the server’s DNS setting should be set to the IP address of the Server. To manage DNS, start the DNS service and configure as shown previously:
Provided your DNS is configured properly then changeip should work. If you’re hosting DNS on an Active Directory integrated DNS server or some other box then just make sure you have a forward and reverse record for the hostname/IP in question.
Profile Manager is built atop the web service, APNS and Open Directory. Next, click on the Web service and just hit start. While not required for Profile Manager to function, it can be helpful. We’re not going to configure anything else with this service in this article so as not to accidentally break Profile Manager. Do not click on anything while waiting for the service to start. While the indicator light can go away early, note that the Web service isn’t fully started until the path to the default websites is shown (the correct entry, as seen here, should be /Library/Server/Web/Data/Sites/Default) and a View Server Website link is shown at the bottom of the screen. If you touch anything too early then you’re gonna’ mess something up, so while I know it’s difficult to do so, be patient (honestly, it takes less than a minute, wait for it, wait for it, there!).
Once the Web service is started and good, click on the View Server Web Site link at the bottom and verify that the Welcome to OS X Server page loads.
Setting Up Profile Manager
Provided the Welcome to OS X Server page loads, click on the Profile Manager service. Here, click on the Configure button.
At the first screen of the Configure Device Management assistant, click on Next.
Assuming the computer is not yet an Open Directory master or Replica, and assuming you wish to setup a new Open Directory Master, click on Create a new Open Directory domain at the Configure Network Users and Groups screen.
Then click on Next. At the Directory Administrator screen, provide the username and password you’d like the Open Directory administrative account to have (note, this is going to be an Open Directory Master, so this example diradmin account will be used to authenticate to Workgroup Manager if we want to make changes to the Open Directory users, groups, computers or computer groups from there). Once you’re done entering the correct information, click Next.
At the Organization Information screen, enter your information (e.g. name of Organization and administrator’s email address). Keep in mind that this information will be in your certificate (and your CSR if you submit that for a non-self-signed certificate) that is used to protect both Profile Manager and Open Directory communications. Click Next.
At the Confirm Settings screen, make sure the information that will be used to configure Open Directory is setup correctly. Then click Set Up (as I’ve put a nifty red circle next to – although it probably doesn’t help you find it if it’s the only button, right?).
The Open Directory master is then created. At the Organization Information screen, enter the name of the contact information for an administrator and click on the Next button. Even if you’re tying this thing into something like Active Directory, this is going to be a necessary step (unless of course you’re already running Open Directory on the system). Once Open Directory is setup you will be prompted to provide the information for an SSL Certificate.
At the Organization Information screen, enter your information and click Next.
At the Configure an SSL Certificate screen, choose a certificate and click Next.
This can be the certificate provided when Open Directory is initially configured, which is self-signed, or you can select a certificate that you have installed using a CSR from a 3rd party provider. At this point, if you’re using a 3rd party Code Signing certificate you will want to have installed it as well. Choose a certificate from the Certificate: drop-down list and then click on Next.
If using a self-signed certificate you will be prompted that the certificate isn’t signed by a 3rd party. Click Next if this is satisfactory.
If you do not already have a push certificate installed for the system, you will then be prompted to enter the credentials for an Apple Push Notification Service (APNS) certificate. This can be any valid AppleID. It is best to use an institutional AppleID (e.g. firstname.lastname@example.org) rather than a private one (e.g. email@example.com). Once you have entered a valid AppleID username and password, click Next.
Provided everything is working, you’ll then be prompted that the system meets the Profile Manager requirements. Click on the Finish button to complete the assistant.
When the assistant closes, you will be back at the Profile Manager screen in the Server application. Here, check the box for Sign Configuration Profiles.
The Code Signing Certificate screen then appears. Here, choose the certificate from the Certificate field.
Unless you’re using a 3rd party certificate there should only be one certificate in the list. Choose it and then click on OK. If you are using a 3rd party certificate then you can import it here, using the Import… selection.
If you host all of your services on the one server (Mail, Calendars, VPN, etc) then leave the box checked for Include configuration for services; otherwise uncheck it.
One of the upgrades in Profile Manager 2.2 is the ability to distribute objects from the App Store Volume Purchase Program through Profile Manager. To use this option, first sign up on the VPP site. Once done, you will receive a token file. Using the token file, check the box for “Distribute apps and books from the Volume Purchase Program” and then use the Choose button to select the token file.
Now that everything you need is in place, click on the ON button to start the service and wait for it to finish starting (happens pretty quickly).
Once started, click on the Open Profile Manager link and the login page opens. Administrators can login to Profile Manager to setup profiles and manage devices.
The URL for this (for YosemiteSam.krypted.com) is https://YosemiteSam.krypted.com/profilemanager. Use the Everyone profile to automatically configure profiles for services installed on the server if you want them deployed to all users. Use custom created profiles for everything else. Also, under the Restrictions section for the everyone group, you can choose what to allow all users to do, or whether to restrict access to certain Profile Manager features to certain users. These include access to My Devices (where users enroll in the system), device lock (so users can lock their own devices if they loose them) and device wipe. You can also allow users to automatically enroll via DEP and Configurator using this screen.
Enrolling Into Profile Manager
To enroll devices for management, use the URL https://YosemiteSam.krypted.com/MyDevices (replacing the hostname with your own). Click on the Profiles tab to bring up a list of profiles that can be installed manually.
From Profiles, click or tap the Enroll button. The profile is downloaded and when prompted to install the profile, click Continue.
Then click Install if installing using a certificate not already trusted.
Once enrolled, click on the Profile in the Profiles System Preference pane to see the settings being deployed.
You can then wipe or lock the device from the My Devices portal. Management profiles from the MDM server are then used. Devices can opt out from management at any time. If you’re looking for more information on moving Managed Preferences (MCX) from Open Directory to a profile-based policy management environment, review this article and note that there are new options in dscl for removing all managed preferences and working with profiles in Mavericks (10.9) and Yosemite (10.10).
If there are any problems when you’re first getting started, an option is always to run the wipeDB.sh script that resets the Profile Manager (aka, devicemgr) database. This can be done by running the following command:
Automating Enrollment & Random Management Tips
The two profiles needed to setup a client on the server are accessible from the web interface of the Server app. Saving these two profiles to a Mac OS X computer then allows you to automatically enroll devices into Profile Manager using Apple Configurator, as shown in this previous article.
When setting up profiles, note that the username and other objects that are dynamically populated can be replaced through a form of variable expansion using payload variables in Profile Manager. For more on doing so, see this article.
Note: As the database hasn’t really changed, see this article for more information on backing up and reindexing the Profile Manager database.
Once you’ve got devices enrolled, those devices can easily be managed from a central location. The first thing we’re going to do is force a passcode on a device. Click on Devices in the Profile Manager sidebar.
Click on a device in Profile Manager’s admin portal, located at https:///profilemanager (in this case https://YosemiteSam.krypted.com/profilemanager). Here, you can see:
The device screen is where much of the management of each device is handled, such as machine-specific settings or using the cog-wheel icon, wiping, locking, etc. From the device (or user, group, user group or device group objects), click on the Settings tab and then click on the Edit button.
Here, you can configure a number of settings on devices. There are sections for iOS specific devices, OS X specific settings and those applicable to both platforms. Let’s configure a passcode requirement for an iPad.
Click on Passcode, then click on Configure.
At the Passcode settings, let’s check the box for Allow simple value and then set the Minimum Passcode Length to 4. I find that with iOS, 4 characters is usually enough as it’ll wipe far before someone can brute force that. Click OK to commit the changes.
Once configured, click Save. At the “Save Changes?” screen, click Save. The device then prompts you to set a passcode a few moments later. The next thing we’re going to do is push an app. To do so, first find an app in your library that you want to push out. Right-click (or control-click) on the app and click on Show in Finder. You can install an Enterprise App from your library or browse to it using the VPP program if the app is on the store. Before you start configuring apps, click on the Apps entry in the Profile Manager sidebar.
At the Apps screen, use the Enterprise App entry to select an app or use the Volume Purchase Program button to open the VPP and purchase an app. Then, from the https:///profilemanager portal, click on an object to manage (in this case it’s a group called Replicants) and at the bottom of the About screen, click Enable VPP Managed Distribution Services.
Click on the Apps tab.
From the Apps tab, click on the plus sign icon (“+”).
At the Add Apps screen, choose the app added earlier and then authenticate if needed, ultimately selecting the app. The app is then uploaded and displayed in the list. Click Add to add to the selected group. Then, click on Done. Then click on Save… and an App Installation dialog will appear on the iOS device you’re pushing the app to.
At the App Installation screen on the iPad, click on the Install button and the app will instantly be copied to the last screen of apps on the device. Tap on the app to open it and verify it works. Assuming it does open then it’s safe to assume that you’ve run the App Store app logged in as a user who happens to own the app. You can sign out of the App Store and the app will still open. However, you won’t be able to update the app as can be seen here.
Note: If you push an app to a device and the user taps on the app and the screen goes black then make sure the app is owned by the AppleID signed into the device. If it is, have the user open App Store and update any other app and see if the app then opens.
Finally, let’s wipe a device. From the Profile Manager web interface, click on a device and then from the cog wheel icon at the bottom of the screen, select wipe.
At the Wipe screen, click on the device and then click Wipe. When prompted, click on the Wipe button again, entering a passcode to be used to unlock the device if possible. The iPad then says Resetting iPad and just like that, the technical walkthrough is over.
Note: For fun, you can use the MyDevices portal to wipe your iPad from the iPad itself.
To quote Apple’s Profile Manager page:
Profile Manager simplifies deploying, configuring, and managing them all. It’s one place where you control everything: You can create profiles to set up user accounts for mail, calendar, contacts, and messages; configure system settings; enforce restrictions; set PIN and password policies; and more. Because it’s integrated with the Apple Push Notification service, Profile Manager can send out updated configurations over the air, automatically. And it includes web-based administration, so you can manage your server from any modern web browser. Profile Manager even gives users access to a self-service web portal where they can download and install new configuration profiles, as well as clear passcodes and remotely lock or wipe their Mac, iPhone, or iPad if it’s lost or stolen.
For the money, Profile Manager is an awesome tool. Apps such as Casper MDM, AirWatch, Zenprise, MaaS360, etc all have far more options, but aren’t as easy to install and nor do they come at such a low price point. Profile Manager is a great option if all of the tasks you need to perform are available within the tool. If not, then it’s worth a look, if only as a means to learn more about the third party tools you’ll ultimately end up using. One thing I can say for it is that Profile Manager is a little faster and seems much more stable (in fact, Apple has now published scalability numbers, which they have rarely done in the past). You can also implement newer features with it, including Books distribution, Gatekeeper, DEP and Messages.
krypted October 16th, 2014
Open Directory has never been so easy to setup for a basic environment as it is in OS X Mavericks Server (OS X 10.9, Server app 3). It’s also never been so annoyingly simple to use that to do anything cool requires a bunch of command line foo. No offense to the developers, but this whole idea that the screens that were being continually refined for a decade just need to be thrown out and started fresh seems to have led to a few babies thrown out along with them. Not often as I’m kinda’ digging most of the new config screens in OS X Mavericks Server, but with Open Directory, it’s just too easy. Features mean buttons. Buttons make things a tad bit more complicated to use than an ON/OFF switch…
Anyway, rant over. Moving on. As with almost any previous version of OS X Server and Open Directory, once you’ve installed the Server app, run the changeip command along with the -checkhostname option to verify that the IP, DNS and hostname match. If (and only if as it will fail if you try anyway) you get an indication that “The names match. There is nothing to change.” then you can move on to setting up the service.
For the purposes of this example, we’re setting up an entirely new Open Directory environment. At the “Configure Network Users and Groups” screen, click on “Create a new Open Directory Domain” and click on the Next button.
At the Directory Administrator screen, enter a username and password for the directory administrator account. The default account is sufficient, although it’s never a bad idea to use something a bit less generic.Once you’ve entered the username and password, click on the Next button. Then we’re going to configure the SSL information.At the Organization Information screen, enter a name for the organization in the Organization Name field and an Email Address to be used in the SSL certificate in the Admin Email Address field. Click on Next.
At the Confirm Settings screen, make sure these very few settings are OK with you and then click on the Set Up button to let slapconfig (the command that runs the OD setup in the background, kinda’ like a cooler dcpromo) do its thing. When the Open Directory master has been configured, there’s no need to reboot or anything, the indicator light for the Open Directory service should appear. If the promotion fails then look to the preflight options I wrote up awhile back.
Once the promotion is complete, you’ll also see the server listed in the Servers list. Here, click on the server and click on the Global Password Policy option in the cog-wheel menu. This is where you can configure the parameters that passwords must meet in order to be usable on the system.
Clicking on the minus (“-“) button while a server is highlighted runs a slapconfig -destroyldapserver on the server and destroys the Open Directory domain if it is the only server. All domain information is lost when this happens.
Next, let’s bind a client. Binding clients can be done in a few different ways. You can use a script, a Profile, the Users & Groups System Preference pane or build binding into the imaging process. For the purpose of this example, we’ll use the System Preference pane.
To get started, open up the System Preference pane and then click on Users & Groups. From here, click on Login Options and then unlock the lock in the lower left corner of the screen, providing a username and password when prompted.
It’s probably best not to use the IP address at this point as the master will have an SSL certificate tied to the name. Click OK to accept the certificate (if it’s self-signed) and then the system should finish binding. Once bound, I like to use either id or dscl to verify that directory accounts are properly resolving before I try logging in as an Open Directory user.
Provided everything works that’s it. The devil is of course in the details. There is very little data worth having if it isn’t backed up. Notice that you can archive by clicking on the cog wheel icon in the Open Directory service pane, much like you could in Server Admin. Or, because this helps when it comes to automating backups (with a little expect), to run a backup from the command line, run the slapconfig command along with the -backupdb option followed by a path to a folder to back the data up to:
sudo slapconfig -backupdb /odbackups
The result will be a request for a password then a bunch of information about the backup:
2013-10-07 19:25:28 +0000 slapconfig -backupdb
Enter archive password:
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 1 Backing up LDAP database
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /usr/sbin/slapcat -l /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/backup.ldif, "r"
52530aad bdb_monitor_db_open: monitoring disabled; configure monitor database to enable
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /usr/sbin/slapcat -b cn=authdata -l /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/authdata.ldif, "r"
52530aad bdb_monitor_db_open: monitoring disabled; configure monitor database to enable
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp /var/db/openldap/openldap-data/DB_CONFIG /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/DB_CONFIG, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp /var/db/openldap/authdata//DB_CONFIG /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/authdata_DB_CONFIG, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp -r /etc/openldap /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/hostname > /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/hostname, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /usr/sbin/sso_util info -pr /LDAPv3/127.0.0.1 > /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/local_odkrb5realm, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /usr/bin/tar czpf /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/krb5backup.tar.gz /var/db/krb5kdc/kdc.conf /var/db/krb5kdc/acl_file.* /var/db/krb5kdc/m_key.* /etc/krb5.keytab , "r"
tar: Removing leading '/' from member names
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 2 Backing up Kerberos database
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp /var/db/dslocal/nodes/Default/config/KerberosKDC.plist /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/KerberosKDC.plist, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp /Library/Preferences/com.apple.openldap.plist /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 3 Backing up configuration files
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /usr/bin/sw_vers > /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/version.txt, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:33 +0000 popen: /bin/cp -r /var/db/dslocal /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0/, "r"
2013-10-07 19:25:34 +0000 Backed Up Keychain
2013-10-07 19:25:34 +0000 4 Backing up CA certificates
2013-10-07 19:25:34 +0000 5 Creating archive
2013-10-07 19:25:34 +0000 command: /usr/bin/hdiutil create -ov -plist -puppetstrings -layout UNIVERSAL CD -fs HFS+ -volname ldap_bk -srcfolder /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0 -format SPARSE -encryption AES-256 -stdinpass /odbackups
2013-10-07 19:25:40 +0000 Removed directory at path /tmp/slapconfig_backup_stage116866ADKh0.
2013-10-07 19:25:40 +0000 Removed file at path /var/run/slapconfig.lock.
To restore a database (such as from a previous version of the operating system where such an important option was actually present) use the following command (which just swaps backupdb with -restoredb)
sudo slapconfig -restoredb /odbackups
Both commands ask you for a password to encrypt and decrypt the disk image created by them.
krypted October 22nd, 2013
Posted In: Mac OS X Server
Tags: backup open directory, backupdb, changeip, Configure Open Directory, logs, Mac OS X Server, Mac Server, Mavericks Server, OS X Server, server 2.2, Server 3.0, setup an open directory master, slapconfig
Now that we’ve looked at what you get and what you don’t get in Mountain Lion Server, let’s take a little while to look at what the upgrade path itself looks like. Before we start, let’s just say that upgrading to Mountain Lion Server is probably one of the fastest, easiest and most boring upgrades you’ll ever get to do. And I say this more to the credit of the engineers that made the process so simple. Apparently there are bonuses to your Server just being an app. There is a catch, some of the services are gone. Another catch, you’re gonna’ need to have a system that meets the following specs:
Apple’s official specs are here, outlining the models that Mountain Lion can run on. If Mountain Lion can run, OS X Server can run on it. Next, make a clone of your computer. I use Carbon Copy Cloner, like most sane people, but YMMV with other tools that you may be in love with. Once your clone is done, I personally like to do both an archive and an export of user accounts from Workgroup Manager as a final safety net. You should also have a book. Preferably one of mine, although given that the merging of two such boring topics can create a black hole of boringness (which is similar to turning a bag of holding inside out, btw), you might choose to bring something a bit livelier than either of the two, like some Dostoyevsky or the Chem 111 textbook I used in college.
Next, let’s go to the App Store. Search for Mountain Lion or OS X and then click the Install button for the Mountain Lion app. The button will then say Downloading, as follows:
Once downloaded, make sure your users won’t chase after you with pitchforks for being down for a couple of hours and then run the installer, following the defaults until the download begins and the system reboots. The installation will take a little while. From the time you start the download to the time that the files are unpacked and replaced on the system can be about an hour or two. This is a good time to grab that book, a bag of Doritos and a Dr. Pepper. Once the Doritos are gone, wash your hands and check the progress of the installation. Read some more. Once that’s done, check the progress again. If you think about a second bag of Doritos, stop – it’s not worth it… A second Dr. Pepper is fine though, I hear it helps you write articles about upgrading to Mountain Lion Server in a way that makes optimal sense.
Once the system reboots again, you should be ready to open Server app. Except for the fact that it isn’t there, which is obvious by the fact that it’s got a big annoying white circle over it in the Dock. Remove the Server app (and Workgroup Manager or Server Admin if they’re in there) and then it’s time to install Server itself.
Go back to the App Store and search for & buy Mountain Lion Server (or install these from Purchases if you’ve already purchased them). Once installed, Server appears in the Dock. Use the following command to verify that the IP address and hostname match:
sudo /Applications/Server.app/Contents/ServerRoot/usr/sbin/changeip -checkhostname
Provided that the name of the server checks out clean, click on the Server app in the Dock to be guided through the installation process.
At the Setup Your Server screen, click on Continue.
Agree to the licensing terms (assuming you do agree) by clicking on the Agree button.
Provide the administrative username and password to give Server and services permission upon installation and then click on the Allow button.
At the Apple Push Notifications screen, provide the Apple ID and password for a valid Apple ID and then click on the Continue button.
After a time, you should see a Congratulations screen. Click on Finish and the Server app should automatically open (or the process fails but Server opens anyway, just without some of the stuff working out of the gate).
At this point, you should see the services that were running prior to the upgrade running. Check the logs to verify that there’s nothing out of the ordinary. If you were running a firewall then the rules will be migrated and continue running. To disable if you’re going to move your rules to pf, then use the following command to disable the rules and reboot:
sudo mv /etc/ipfilter /etc/ipfilter.OLD
You don’t need to disable these immediately, although a lack of control over them might cause you to want to… Next, install Workgroup Manager, available at http://support.apple.com/kb/DL1567. You’ve now got a functional server, provided that the entire process went smoothly. In my experience so far (there hasn’t been a ton of this at this point), the service migration is far smoother than from within the Lion Server point releases (e.g. 10.7.2 to 10.7.3, etc). Profile Manager, for example, worked like a charm on upgrade, as did Calendar and Contacts services, which had been a bit persnickety at times previously.
Now, you can get back to that book and instead of a 3rd Dr. Pepper, switch to Jägermeister!
krypted July 28th, 2012
In this article: http://docs.info.apple.com/article.html?path=ServerAdmin/10.5/en/c7sa13.html Apple states that you no longer need to use the changeip command with Mac OS X Server:
You can change the IP address of a server using the Network pane of System Preferences or the networksetup tool.
When a network address change is detected, no matter how the change happened, changeip is invoked. The tool changeip goes through all configuration files and places where the Serverâ€™s IP address is stored, and changes the address to conform to the new address. The serverâ€™s IP address can be changed without changeip being invoked from the command-line.
krypted October 14th, 2008
Posted In: Mac OS X Server
One of the more common mistakes I see people make in the Mac OS X Server world is to just change the IP address. There are consequences. So, if you are going to change the IP address of your server, make sure to run the changeip command when you are doing so.
krypted February 22nd, 2008
Posted In: Mac OS X Server