My latest piece on the Huffington Post is about nerding up your Smart Home. Here, I look at some of the weird little things they don’t put in the manuals, and try to help people not fall into some of the traps that have resulted in about 10 IoT style devices I can’t use with my latest hub, wasting money, and sometimes just not having the correct expectations going into some of my equipment installs. I still love this whole little industry. But I can reserve a little hope that others will get some joy out of commiserating, learn something, or maybe even get into something they may have thought wasn’t ready or was beyond them. Hope you enjoy!
Nothing says fall in Minnesota like frost on the leaves, refreshing Oktoberfest beer, and the world’s largest gathering of Apple IT admins. While the first two may give you shivers or put a smile on your face, the latter is a guarantee to help you build on your Mac, iPad, and iPhone management skills. To make your decision to join us in Minneapolis this October a no-brainer, we want to give you an early glimpse into some incredible sessions we’re offering at this year’s JAMF Nation User Conference (JNUC).
We’ve posted nine of the community-led sessions the JNUC is famous for and—new this year—seven of the product sessions JAMF experts will be leading. With sessions for education and commercial organizations, you’re sure to find presentations to meet your needs and help your users do more with their Apple devices. Highlights include ways to make more collaborative and personalized classrooms, how to transition from one mobile device management tool to another, and 10 ideas for empowering users to be more self-sufficient.
Haven’t registered yet? There’s still time, but hurry. You won’t want to hear about this event secondhand.
Secure your spot and start making your travel plans and accommodations before it’s too late. We hope you can make it!
When уоu thіnk of State College, thеrе’ѕ a gооd сhаnсе thаt one thіng соmеѕ tо mіnd: Pеnn Stаtе fооtbаll. And while thе tеаm іѕ a bіg drаw for thе rеgіоn, thеrе are рlеntу оf оthеr grеаt thіngѕ tо dо іn State Cоllеgе аnd the rеѕt of Cеntrе Cоuntу. Thеrе аrе mаnу оutdооrѕ асtіvіtіеѕ іn Cеntrаl Pеnnѕуlvаnіа. Cеntrе Cоuntу has several rесrеаtіоn сеntеrѕ аnd facilities for уеаr-rоund fun, іnсludіng сусlіng, fіѕhіng, hiking, саmріng, golf, ісе ѕkаtіng аnd more. Whеthеr уоu lіvе іn Stаtе College, Bеllеfоntе, Boalsburg or Phіlірѕburg, аttеnd Pеnn Stаtе University, оr аrе vіѕіtіng Central Pennsylvania fоr business оr рlеаѕurе.
Sоmе оf thеm, like thе All-Stаtе Museum оr thе Pеnn Stаtе Creamery аrе wеll known. Hоwеvеr, оthеrѕ mіght bе a bіt оf a ѕurрrіѕе fоr еvеn thе mоѕt knоwlеdgеаblе оf residents аnd аlumnі. Hеrе аrе ѕоmе the thіngѕ уоu can dо whеn vіѕіtіng State College, Pеnnѕуlvаnіа In Lаtе Junе:
Drink Crаft Beer
Aѕ a соllеgе town, уоu might thіnk that State Cоllеgе іѕ full оf сhеар bееr. Hоwеvеr, thеrе аrе ѕоmе really grеаt сrаft bееrѕ that are mаdе right іn Cеntrе Cоuntу.
Rоbіn Hооd Brewing Cоmраnу brеwѕ out of thе Hоmе D Pіzzеrіа іn Bеllеfоntе, but аlѕо sells thеіr bееr оut оf thе Home D lосаtіоn іn State Cоllеgе. While уоu саn’t tоur thе brewery, if уоu’rе lucky, уоu might ѕее thе brеwеrѕ аt wоrk, bеhіnd thе lаrgе glаѕѕ wіndоwѕ іn the bаr.
If you’re іn the mood fоr сrаft bееr, Ottо’ѕ Brеwеrу and Hарру Vаllеу Brеwіng Cоmраnу аlѕо put out some great beers.
Eаt Authеntіс Cаjun Fооd
Authentic Cаjun fооd in thе mіddlе оf Pennsylvania mіght seem оdd, but аt Spats Cаfе on thе еdgе оf downtown Stаtе College, you саn hаvе just thаt. Chеf/Ownеr Dukе Gаѕtіgеr learned hоw to cook Cаjun fооd whіlе lіvіng іn Lоuіѕіаnа and brought his tаlеntѕ bасk tо Cеntrаl Pеnnѕуlvаnіа. Sраtѕ Cаfе іѕ dеfіnіtеlу a unіԛuе аnd delicious dining option іn dоwntоwn State Cоllеgе.
Explore Wоrld-Clаѕѕ Art
On thе campus оf Pеnn Stаtе’ѕ саmрuѕ is the Pаlmеr Museum оf Art. Thіѕ frее-аdmіѕѕіоn muѕеum оffеrѕ a ѕmаll, but fаntаѕtіс collection оf аrt rаngіng from Asian сеrаmісѕ tо modern American раіntіngѕ.
Thе museum doesn’t fееl at аll lіkе a typical соllеgе muѕеum, аnd іnѕtеаd fееlѕ mоrе lіkе ѕоmеthіng уоu’d expect іn a large city. Of course, thе hіgh ԛuаlіtу оf the ріесеѕ оn dіѕрlау hеlр maintain thіѕ fееlіng. Thіѕ is dеfіnіtеlу a fantastic dеѕtіnаtіоn for anyone lооkіng for a lіttlе сulturе
Tour A Cаvеrn Bу Boat
There are plenty of caverns іn Pеnnѕуlvаnіа, but thеrе’ѕ оnlу оnе that уоu can tоur by boat. Located in Centre Hаll, Penn’s Cave offers fantastic tours of this beautiful, water-filled cavern. Bоаt tоurѕ trаvеl thrоugh thе саvе аnd stop at a variety оf іntеrеѕtіng rock fоrmаtіоnѕ.
Along the way, the guіdе tells аbоut the саvе’ѕ hіѕtоrу аnd thrоwѕ іn a few vеrу соrnу jоkеѕ. Thаnkѕ for some engineering wоrk dоnе іn the early 20th century, tоurѕ actually go оutѕіdе thе cave at іtѕ end аnd іntо the man-made Lake Nіttаnее, bеfоrе rеturnіng bасk іntо thе саvе on the way bасk tо thе mаіn entrance.
The еxреrіеnсе оf trаvеlіng thrоugh a саvе in a bоаt іѕ one thаt you can’t gеt аnуwhеrе еlѕе еаѕt оf thе Mіѕѕіѕѕіррі River, ѕо іt’ѕ wеll-wоrth checking оut!
Sее Chrіѕtорhеr Cоlumbuѕ’ Sеа Chеѕt
Of all thе surprising thіngѕ оn this list, thіѕ one mіght be the mоѕt ѕhосkіng. Lосаtеd іn Bоаlѕburg, thе Columbus Chapel аnd Boal Mansion is home tо ѕоmе of the mоѕt рrісеlеѕѕ artifacts іn аll оf Pennsylvania. Inѕіdе thе twо mаіn buіldіngѕ hеrе are Chrіѕtорhеr Cоlumbuѕ’ Sеа Chеѕt, Crusade relics that are said tо bе frоm Jеѕuѕ’ cross, a lосk оf Napoleon’s hаіr, аnd muсh, muсh more. The truth оf thіѕ place іѕ ԛuіtе ѕtrаngеr than fісtіоn.
Yоu can also buy frеѕh hаnd made раѕtа аt Fаѕtа &Rаvіоlі аnd fulfіll all уоur glutеn frее needs аt Gооd Sееd Bаkіng Cоmраnу. Alѕо, hеаr lіvе сlаѕѕісаl muѕіс wіth 2 lосаl оrсhеѕtrаѕ, 3-5 Unіvеrѕіtу orchestras, and thе Penn’s Wооdѕ Summеr Fеѕtіvаl orchestra…
Finally, there are so many things to do in this charming city. You have to grab a selfie in front of Beaver Stadium, grab a tasting at Happy Valley Vineyard, check out the Arboretum, swing by the Palmer Museum of Art, visit Matson Museum of Anthropology, find solace at Hillbrook Marsh Nature Center, and check out one of the many, many, many wonderful bars and restaurants in State College.
I started playing Dungeons and Dragons in about the 5th or 6th grade. I didn’t get good at it for awhile. And once I got good at it, I didn’t play much longer. Along the way, I learned a few lessons that until I got older, I didn’t realize were great life lessons. I also learned a lot that helped me later in life in the business world. Here’s a few you may or may not agree with.
Build a great campaign and then if the game is good, expect your players to totally break it. In business, you create a situation where customers give you money. You build processes, procedures, marketable packages, and teams. These prepare you for the massive onslaught of all the moneys that are going to come in. You need to be able to build a product, sell the product, and potentially service the product long-term. Maybe you sell it, maybe you don’t. But if you’re not ready for the sales to happen, you won’t sell that much. How much work do you put into building a campaign, or game, in Dungeons and Dragons, if the characters are just going to go right off your script? How much effort do you put into building a business if the customers are just going to buy something from you that is completely different than what you thought you were going to sell? These are the same questions, and there’s no right answer to either (although there are tons of wrong answers). But understanding that when momentum strikes in a game and if you don’t have a good campaign built that is flexible, you won’t maintain that momentum, is key.
If you have to stop the game to look up the rules, your momentum is lost. Games got way more fun as we better understood the rules. When you have to stop and look something up, the attention of the gamers can get lost on things like potato chips. Similarly, the attention of the market is lost when you have to stop a business transaction to review contracts, train employees, rebuild processes, and reengineer product. The better all employees are trained, the more likely they will respond quickly and appropriately to the market and not have their attention wander when you have to look up how to properly figure out what saving throw is required to keep from getting crispy from the breath of a red dragon.
Have fun! There’s not much reason to play Dungeons and Dragons alone. If the game isn’t fun, you will invariably not have many people come back for a second or third campaign. In business, employees need to be engaged. Products and companies these days need to have a personality. Sure, you might make a great widget, but if it isn’t fun to come to work and make, sell, or support that widget, then you’re going to have a much harder time getting those things done. Fun brands, like fun games, drive engagement – and engagement amplifies your spend.
You gain experience incrementally, but it shows in bursts. In Dungeons and Dragons, you gain experience points for doing things. When you accumulate enough, you go up a level. At that point, you might get a higher score for an ability, you might pick up proficiency with a new weapon, or you might get more hit points. Heck, according to your character class, a lot of cool stuff can happen. I find that in business, we slowly work our way towards a new level. We learn lessons along the way (like a Level 1 Cleric learns not to tackle a blue dragon alone). I was recently in a meeting where someone said that a department had reached a new level. In business, you kinda’ work your way there, learning lessons, training staff, expanding, contracting, etc. But all of a sudden, you realize “holy crap, we can now cast fireball spells!” When did it happen? Sometimes you don’t even know… But it’s usually obvious to everyone that a gap was closed, a threshold crossed, and it’s time to start building momentum for the next level, tackling more difficult monsters, arming up with better weapons, and maybe even picking up some new NPCs along the way!
To sell, you need to be confident. When it’s your turn in a game, you may talk as your character would (I’ve heard some of the worst accents ever in these games). The more confident you are, the more the game is immersive. Without confidence, a Dungeon Master is likely to get walked all over. Most jobs in a company have way more of a sales component that most employees want to admit.
Some players are just going to be more engaged than others, no matter what you do. Different people want different things out of a game of Dungeons and Dragons, their jobs, and this life in general. When I was taking MBA classes at Cornell, they referred to this as different people having their own motivators. These motivators influence how impactful various initiatives are. For example, some respond well to financial incentives. Others to social interactions or pats on the back. Some players have a math test the next day and are going to miss a game. Others are ridiculously into the game. Just because you put a lot of work into developing a campaign doesn’t mean that others are going to be into each and every game. Everyone will have more fun if the expectations for engagement with a given initiative are tempered and any involvement is looked at positively.
Don’t dominate the game. Everyone should have a say in how games go. There’s going to be natural alphas in any group. But try and give everyone ample time to play and talk about what their character is doing. And if some people don’t have that much to say, that’s fine. Just routinely return to them and give them the opportunity. This is how a game, meeting, brainstorming session, town hall, etc can be run. If one player is dominating the game, it’s a great idea to step in and keep them from doing so. How you go about doing so will become a skill that you hone for decades. And try not to be that person. Another skill you may hone for the rest of your life…
When the 20 sided dice goes missing, it was probably the paladin that took it. Yup, stop blaming the thief. The person who prefers to play a Lawful Good paladin might just be living vicariously and might not be the eagle scout everyone thought they were. Don’t jump to conclusions when things happen in the professional world. Gather all of the information. Especially when there’s an accusation to be made. When you’re trying to isolate a problem with a process or product, perform your due diligence. Root cause analysis, etc. Of course, you’ll need that 1d20 back eventually the game is to go on…
You are invariably going to outgrow the game. People don’t stay in the same position forever. You need to build a growth path. You don’t want your level 5 Drow Elf Ranger to stay level 5 forever. You want to be prepared for how the game will play out with higher level characters, and maybe even keep a funnel of lower level characters and employees who can work their way up into higher positions. And when a player decides to leave the game, you need a succession plan. It’s easier in Dungeons and Dragons than in business. Sure, you can switch classes, just like employees can switch departments, but it’s a pretty linear path for most in the game. In the real world, everyone will have something different they want out of a job and it’s the job of a servant leader to help them get there, even if it means helping them soar to new heights at another organization. It’s best though, if you can provide a growth plan that keeps your awesome people in house, of course… But sometimes a player’s going to go off to college. Maybe they’ll come over and take over as the Dungeon Master when they come home though. So stay in touch. Also stay in touch because you just plain like them and want to be friends…
Morale is optional in Dungeons and Dragons, but not in the business world. Morale was a slightly more advanced feature for Dungeon Masters. Basically, if a creature or retainer fails morale check (2d6), it will disengage from a battle and retreat. If it sucks to work at your company, or on your team, your employees will do the same. If you don’t work on morale, you won’t find yourself with talented employees for long.
What happens when you turn a bag of holding inside out? Some things, you’ll never know. But, you can’t wait until you know every detail in business. You see, the cost to gather tooooo much intel can outweigh the opportunity cost of jumping into something. Every now and then you have to trust your gut. But, when you do, maybe turning that bag of holding opens a black hole and ends the game, or maybe it takes you to a whole new level.
It’s about the journey, not the destination. Sure, you could rush through a dungeon, or a forest of kobolds in record time. But why? Killing all the kobolds is going to get you experience points, which add up until you get to the point where you can tackle golems and orcs and dragons. At work, try and be thorough. I find that I can get 90 percent of a project done in no time. That last 10 percent is the hardest, and where I learn the most. It’s also where the polish can be seen by others. You obviously need to complete projects, but it’s the journey towards all of your goals (the projects, the learning, etc) that really matter. And if you’re rushing through everything, it will show. Plus, there’s usually a low chance you’ll get some kind of magic item off a kobold…
Eventually, your fighter has to work on more traits than just strength. The easiest character to play is usually a fighter. You’re just kindof a tank. You can walk into a room and fight and kill monsters. In Dungeons and Dragons, each character has a number of different abilities. These include things like Dexterity, which helps a thief to pick locks and all characters to avoid getting hit. There’s also intelligence, wisdom, constitution, charisma and strength. Each class of character will need different abilities to be higher than others. And as you level up you receive adjustments you can add to abilities. Naturally, a player will work on the abilities for their class first. For example, if you have a fighter, you’ll increase strength and constitution (which gives you more hit points), or if you have a thief you’ll work on dexterity. But, as the character progresses, you’ll invariably work on different abilities to unlock more advanced features of your class. The same is true at work. Let’s say you write code for a living (which many consider the magic-user of the business world these days). Eventually, you may choose to manage a team, become a scrum master, or manage products. For each of these, it will greatly help if you’ve dedicated a little time to working on your charisma ability. So while public speaking and management classes might not seem all that awesome for a code monkey, well, they will suit you well later in the game of your career.
The more junk you have the slower you move. Each item that your character finds in the game will weigh you down a little. Eventually, when you find items, you’ll have to choose what you carry and what you leave behind. And sometimes, you’ll find yourself leaving behind things that you fought huge battles with monsters to attain. It’s hard to let go of things, but sometimes you have to. At work, you might have projects that you want to continue with but have to let them go to move into a new position. You might have equipment that you love but can’t keep. You might have data on your computer (or phone or iPad) that’s just wasting space. Keep in mind, that there’s a weight to that data, even if only mentally. Learn to let things go. Sometimes the character simply can’t move to the next room with a massive bag of treasure on their back.
Energy draining monsters are the worst! As mentioned earlier in this article, once you reach a certain number of experience points (pretty much double from the previous level up) you get to move up in levels. However, occasionally you find undead monsters that can drain experience points from you. Ghosts, ghasts, ghouls and other monsters are the total suck. They can set you back pretty far. And sometimes permanently. We all know people that just suck the life right out of you at work. They always talk about how they tried an initiative and the initiative didn’t work, so they don’t want to try anything else. They always go back to the good old days and these days everything sucks. These energy draining attitudes must be vanquished. Regrettably, in Dungeons and Dragons, that often requires magic items. Positivity and strategy are the magic weapons in the corporate world. Results speak for themselves, so they are the vorpal sword of the board room!
The best business happens in a pub. Yup, you’re not gonna’ buy that crazy Staff of Wielding in a regular-old blacksmith’s shop. Instead, sometimes you do your best business in a bar. Or a golf course. Or at church. When you’re in these places, be you, but don’t be afraid to let business happen where it happens!
Teams need to be diverse. A party of 6 fighters really isn’t going to make it far. Nor 6 clerics. You need a couple of fighters, a cleric (to heal everyone), a magic user (maybe an elf), a thief (likely a halfling), etc. A well rounded adventuring party is key to the success of a campaign. The same is true for many teams at work. Different experiences and different backgrounds bring different ideas and perspectives. And bring everyones game up a notch. Of course, sometimes your half-orc rogue will spar with your paladin. But the team is better for having everyone together.
Sometimes you have to retreat. A 4th level barbarian walks into a bar… It sounds like a joke, until it ends “and get shot with lightning by a level 36 drow lich-king. A/B testing, pivoting, fail fast. Have an open mind. Be creative, but if your initiatives aren’t working out, get out of the bar, before you get lit up. Having said that, let things play out. Sometimes the lich-king just hits you with a riddle and might give you treasure rather than have you dual it out. Modern business acumen is to try things, let initiatives play out, but be prepared to change course. Don’t be afraid to admin that you were wrong. This is a common trait of people who are right a lot.
The best loot is free. I guess it’s according to how you define free. Organic growth is always best when possible. Buying customers, buying products, buying teams, etc are all problematic in their own way. Sometimes you do those things so that you can get to market quicker. But when you go into a dungeon and try and take on a stretch goal of killing yourself a giant spider, you’ll get rewarded by great loot. That +2 longsword will do you well. And it’s better to get it that way than to get it in a store.
Sometimes you get a critical miss, sometimes you get a critical hit. In Dungeons and Dragons, if you’re trying to stab a monster, you roll the dice to see if you hit it. There are certain numbers on a dice that might have your character inflicting extra damage, because you hit an artery or something like that. There are other numbers that might cause you to actually stab yourself. There’s a certain amount of chance to everything we do. Maybe a critical miss is to get fired by your biggest customer for something you had no control over. Maybe a critical win is to have your largest deal ever come in during the last couple weeks of a year so the year ends historically awesome sauce. Maybe you ship software with a huge bug. Maybe you have some widgets made and they fall off a cargo ship on the way from China. I’ve seen it all. Sometimes things backfire. The best plan, have a backout plan. And be prepared for the critical hit pushing your business forward a year or two with one deal. If you don’t try, you might not get it!
A SQL JOIN clause combines rows from tables, based on a field shared between them (often a joining or ID field). There are four types of JOINs:
INNER JOIN: Show rows when there’s a match in BOTH tables
LEFT JOIN: Show rows in the left table with the rows that match up from the right table
RIGHT JOIN: Show rows in the right table with rows that match up in the left table
FULL JOIN: Show rows with a match in at least one table
In this article, we’ll use the same “Customers” table from our first articles:
ID Site Contact Address City Zip Country
1 Krypted Charles Edge my house Minneapolis 55418 US
2 Apple Tim Cook spaceship Cupertino 95014 US
3 Microsoft Satya Nadella campus Redmond 98053 US
4 Facebook Mark Zuckerberg foodhall Menlo Park 94025 US
5 JAMF Dean Hager Grain Exchange Minneapolis 55418 US
In the above two tables, each has their own ID field, with ID being the Customers table ID and IPID being the ID of an IP address. We have a series of IPs for SiteIDs 3-5, with 104 and 105 being the same IP address. Note that the IPs are fake. I made ’em up. Sorry about not using production data, but it didn’t make that much sense…
Here, we’ll use a SELECT and identify the fields, defining the table followed by a dot and then the field name as the data to load into memory. We’ll pull that from our initial table and use an INNER JOIN with the second, using an ON to define which field is used to map out results:
SELECT IPs.IPID, Customers.ID, IPs.IP
INNER JOIN Customers
We’ll then get something like this, with the three fields that we defined in the SELECT as the columns to display in the output:
IPID ID IP
101 1 22.214.171.124
102 2 126.96.36.199
103 3 188.8.131.52
104 4 184.108.40.206
105 5 220.127.116.11
This is a pretty basic JOIN. But shows the power we have. We can then use a LEFT JOIN alongside an ORDER BY:
SELECT Customers.Site, IPs.IP
LEFT JOIN IPs
ORDER BY Customers.Site;
The output would then appear as follows:
The different types of JOINs give you the ability to string together some pretty awesome logic, to locate assets in multiple tables and display them. For example, let’s say I also had a Registrar table. I could then also use that ID attribute from our original database as a key to access data connected to our initial table from other tables. Overall, simple and straight forward means of querying data and displaying those results, or leveraging them into a variable or file in order to make use of them elsewhere (e.g. with a script).
The directory services options in OS X has quietly been going through some slow changes over the past couple of years. Many of the tools we use to manage accounts look similar on the outside but sometimes work a little differently under the hood. Account information is still stored in the /var/db/dslocal/nodes directory. Here, the local directory service pulls files from within directories recursively when accountsd loads. You can still create a second instance of the local directory service by copying the Default directory. For example, here we’ll copy the Default directory node to a directory node called NEW:
If you killall accountsd then wait (this is slower than doing a killall of DirectoryService was), you’ll then see and be able to use this new directory node:
sudo killall accountsd
This is one way to go about forklifting large collections of accounts from one system to another. The dsmemberutil account can still be used to obtain certain information from accounts. For example, you can check group membership by feeding in a uid with the -u option (here using the uid of 509) and a gid with the -g (here a gid of 10) option:
dsmemberutil checkmembership -u 509 -g 10
Each account still has a uuid. This can be obtained with -u for a user or -g for a group (ids):
dsmemberutil getuuid -u 509
And, you can use dsmemberutil to flush the directory services cache resolver, using the flushcache verb:
The files that comprise accounts can also be viewed and changed manually. Here, we’re going to just look at an account called charles:
There’s lots for businesses to be excited about with iOS 9. From easier multitasking on iPad, commuting with Transit view in Maps, enhanced notes, to an all new News app—there are lots of ways that business users can make the most of their iPads and iPhones by migrating to iOS 9. We encourage users to take advantage of iOS 9. Their devices will remain fully compatible with Bushel.
There are a number of tools that you can use to encrypt a Mac. Many of these cost around $100 per year, per system. And these days, most of the tools for the Mac simply use the built-in options in OS X, which leverage a technology called FileVault. These options include enabling the encryption process, defining a place to put keys to decrypt a drive if you need them, and configuring basic options for the keys.
It’s one of the most common things you hear when you are trying to bring an innovation to the table. It could be as known a quantity as replacing an ERP system. The innovation could be unique, compelling and clearly alter the trajectory of the organization in so many ways. However, there are always going to be reasons not to do it.
I sat in on a panel at a conference last year and discussed how to get your organization to approve the projects that you as the CTO/Director of IT/IT Manager/Field Tech wanted. The ideas here always start with cost savings. To calculate the financial savings of a change you can just look at factors such as how much payroll will be saved or how much less does it cost to make widgets. And while it’s great to be efficient, you can only get so efficient. And saving people money doesn’t really get you the same level of recognition/pay/whatever motivates you as something far more earth shattering.
Innovation has always been a core part of technology. Perhaps you end up blowing up into a whole new field. Or maybe you just incrementally innovate the field you’re in. But innovation keeps us pushing the envelope forward. But as with all progress, it comes at a cost. When we’re looking at bringing a new innovation into any environment, we must weigh the cost of that innovation against the rewards to be gained. Apple is a great organization to look to for innovation. And the cost to their community continues to be minimal, because they break it to us in parts. As with a Facebook timeline, the constant change can be frustrating but when they’re incremental changes, they’re easier to accept.