Synology provides SSH access, which allows you to do a number of things you can’t do with the GUI. To enable SSH, simply log in on the Synology and open Control Panel. From the Control Panel, scroll down to “Terminal & SNMP” in the sidebar and check the box for “Enable SSH service” and then click Apply.
The device will then have SSH enabled. Open Terminal on your Mac or Windows device and let’s SSH into the root account of the IP address, done as follows (where 192.168.50.5 is the IP address of your Synology):
When prompted, enter the same admin password you normally use. You’ll then be at a command prompt in the device, which should look like this:
Now, you can cd around, use ls to view folder contents. Terminal substitutions like !$ and !! won’t work, but you can do simple tasks like restart services using the synoservice command:
/usr/syno/sbin/synoservice –restart <servicename>
krypted April 16th, 2018
Posted In: Synology
enable SSH, enable ssh on a synology, get ssh access
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A Synology can act as a local file server that is used to share a folder from a cloud account. You can use accounts with from Backblaze, Google Drive, Amazon, Alibaba, Dropbox, Azure, and others. This means you can use a Synology to provide LAN access to cloud solutions. Before you do, make sure you understand that if changes are made in the cloud and on a client computer at the same time, that you will end up not knowing which is right and so file-locking issues will come up. It’s best to use this strategy for home environments or come up with another mechanism for locking files.
If you choose to use the sync option, open Package Center and search for Cloud Sync.
Click Install to install the package.
Once installed, choose the cloud you’d like to sync to your local network.
For this example, we’ll use Google Drive. Click on that option and then when prompted, select the account to use (if you have multiple accounts you access).
Once you’ve selected an account, you need to give an entitlement to the Synology to sync with that api.
When prompted, click Agree.
Next, configure how the data will be stored on the Synology. Do so by providing a name to the connection and choosing a path on your local storage.
You can also create a folder on the Synology to then share. We’ll do so here and then click OK.
Then select .which folder on your cloud volume (in this case, my Google Drive) that you want to sync and click Select.
Select when the sync will run. In this example, every hour.
Click OK and then Next. You’ll be shown an overview of the options you selected. Click Apply.
And then the first sync will start.
While the sync is running, let’s click Settings and review the options for throttling speeds (so as not to destroy slower WAN links).
Click History to see logs. And viola, you now have a local copy of cloud accounts!
krypted April 15th, 2018
Posted In: Synology
backup, cloud backup, cloud sync, Synology
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It’s not likely that your Synology is going to get infected with a virus of some kind. It’s also not likely that, if you’re switching to Synology from a macOS Server, that most of your clients will get infected or be using infected files. But you probably have that one Windows accounting machine in the back of the office. So you should scan your Synology routinely. To do so, Synology provides a clamav bundle, much like what I usually told people to use on macOS file servers.
To install antivirus on your Synology, open Package Center and search for antivirus. Click on Antivirus Essential and then click on Install.
Once installed, open Antivirus Essential from the Main Menu. From here, you can perform a Full Scan, a Custom Scan (which allows you to select the shared folders to scan), or perform a System Scan (which scans everything else). To automate scans, click Scheduled Scan.
At the Scheduled Scan screen, click Create.
At the Schedule screen, choose the type of scan (the same options as when run manually) and when the scan should run. I definitely recommend daily scans. Then, click on OK and check the box for Enable.
Click on Settings. Here, you can define what happens when an infected file is found (Quarantine is usually the best option as you can then click on Quarantine in the sidebar routinely to check on what files might have been moved). Whitelist allows you to define exclusions. Good files to exclude are Quickbooks files, and other files that aren’t very friendly to antivirus scanning, as they’re open a lot. And use the Update option to have the virus definitions updated before every scan.
If you ever want to check that the definitions are indeed updated, click on Update in the sidebar. And that’s it, you’re now automatically scanning for viruses on the schedule you defined. I recommend setting a reminder to check on it every now and then. At first maybe weekly and later maybe monthly, depending on how many quarantined files are found when you check in. Just make sure the defs are up-to-date and sift through the logs every now and then and you should be good!
krypted April 9th, 2018
Posted In: Small Business, Synology
antivirus, Apple, file shares, scanning for infected files, Synology
You can backup a Synology in a number of ways. Even if you have a local backup, you should have a backup offsite. Here, we’ll walk through backing up a Synology using Acronis True Image. Before doing so, it’s worth noting that the only things backed up this way are the ones that are by default accessible through an app, and that you’ll have to give access to each of those entitlements in order for the backup to run. These include Contacts, Photos, Videos, Calendars, and Reminders.
To get started, first go to the Package Center on a Synology. Then, search for Acronis.
At the listing for Acronis True Image, click Install. Once installed, make sure you’re accessing your Synology through the web interface directly rather than through QuickConnect. This would be http://<IPADDRESS>:5000. From there, open the Main Menu and then open Acronis True Image from there.
Now, install the Acronis Mobile app from the iOS App Store (
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/acronis-true-image-mobile/id978342143?mt=8 ) on the iOS device you’ll be backing up. Once installed, open the app and tap on Back up to computer or NAS.
Then tap SCAN QR CODE.
Then provide access to the camera in order to scan the QR code.
Then choose what you’d like to back up and tap on Back up now.
Once the backup is complete, you’ll see the backup shown on the Synology when you open up the Acronis app.
Backing up to iCloud is still the only way to get everything else. But it’s still useful in some ways (e.g. if you are a real estate agency and just want to back up Contacts and Photos in case something happens).
krypted April 8th, 2018
Posted In: Synology
Acronis mobile, Apple, backup iPhone, Synology
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Synology is able to do everything a macOS Server could do, and more. So if you need to move your VPN service, it’s worth looking at a number of different solutions. The most important question to ask is whether you actually need a VPN any more. If you have git, mail/groupware, or file services that require remote access then you might want to consider moving these into a hosted environment somewhere. But if you need access to the LAN and you’re a small business without other servers, a Synology can be a great place to host your VPN services.
Before you setup anything new, first snapshot your old settings. Let’s grab which protocols are enabled, running the following from Terminal:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:enabled
Next, we’ll get the the IP ranges used so we can mimic those (or change them) in the new service:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:enabled
Now let’s grab the DNS servers handed out so those can be recreated:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:IPv4:DestAddressRanges
Finally, if you’re using L2TP, let’s grab the shared secret:
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.pptp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:DNS:OfferedServerAddresses:_array_index
Once we have all of this information, we can configure the new server using the same settings.
sudo serveradmin settings vpn:Servers:com.apple.ppp.l2tp:L2TP:IPSecSharedSecretValue
To install the VPN service on a Synology, first open the Synology and click on Package Center. From there, click on All and search for VPN.
Then click on the Install button for VPN. Once installed, open VPN Server from the application launcher in the upper left-hand corner of the screen. Initially, you’ll see a list of the services that can be run, which include the familiar PPTP and L2TP, along with the addition of Open VPN.
Before we potentially open up dangerous services to users we might not want to have access to, click on Privilege. Here, enable each service for each user that you want to have access to the VPN services.
Now that we can safely enable and disable each of the services, click on PPTP in the sidebar of the VPN Server app (if you want to provide PPTP-based services to clients).
Here, check the box for “Enable PPTP VPN server” and enter the following information:
- Dynamic IP address: The first DHCP address that will be given to client computers
- Maximum connection number: How many addresses that can be handed out (and therefore the maximum number of clients that can connect via PPTP).
- Maximum number of connections with the same account: How many sessions a given account can have (1 is usually a good number here).
- Authentication: Best to leave this at MS-CHAP v2 for compatibility, unless you find otherwise.
- Encryption: Leave as MPPE optional unless all clients can do MPPE and then you can enforce it for a stronger level of encryption.
- MTU: 1400 is a good number.
- Use manual DNS: If clients will connect to services via names once connected to the VPN, I’d put your primary DNS server in this field.
Click Apply and open port 1723 so clients can connect to the service. If you’ll be using L2TP over IPSec, click on “L2TP/IPSec” in the sidebar. The settings are the same as those above, but you can also add a preshared key to the mix. Go ahead and check the enable checkbox, provide the necessary settings from the PPTP list, and provide that key and then click on Apply. Note that the DHCP pools are different between the two services. Point UDP ports 1701, 500, and 4500 at the new server to allow for remote connections and then test that clients can connect.
That’s it. You’ve managed to get a new VPN setup and configured. Provided you used the same IP address, same client secret, and the ports are the same, you’ll then be able to probably use the same profile to install clients that you were using previously.
krypted April 6th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Synology
Apple, l2tp, mac clients, macos, macos server, migrate vpn, pptp, Synology
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People who have managed Open Directory and will be moving to Synology will note that directory services really aren’t nearly as complicated was we’ve made them out to be for years. This is because Apple was protecting us from doing silly things to break our implementations. It was also because Apple bundled a number of seemingly disparate technologies into ldap. It’s worth mentioning that LDAP on a Synology is LDAP. We’re not federating services, we’re not kerberizing services, we’re not augmenting schemas, etc. We can leverage the directory service to provide attributes though, and have that central phone book of user and group memberships we’ve come to depend on directory services to provide.
To get started, open the Package Center and search for Directory. Click Install for the Directory Server and the package will be installed on the Synology.
When the setup is complete, open the Directory Server from the launcher available in the upper right hand corner of the screen.
The LDAP server isn’t yet running as you need to configure a few settings before starting. At the Settings screen, you can enable the LDAP service by checking the box to “Enable LDAP Service” and providing the hostname (FQDN) of the service along with a password.
Once the service is configured, you’ll have a base DN and a bind DN. These are generated based on the name provided in that FQDN field. For example, if the FQDN is “synology.krypted.com”, its Base DN will be “dc=synology,dc=krypted,dc=com”. And the Bind DN would add a lookup starting a root, then moving into the users container and then the hostname: uid=root,cn=users,dc=synology,dc=krypted,dc=com
If this is for internal use, then it’s all setup. If you’ll be binding external services to this LDAP instance, make sure to open ports 389 (for LDAP) and/or 636 (for LDAP over SSL) as well.
Once you have information in the service, you’ll want to back it up. Click on Backup and Restore. Then click on Configure.
At the Configure screen, choose a destination.
I prefer using a directory I can then backup with another tool. Once you have defined a place to store your backups using the Destination field, choose a maximum number of backups and configure a schedule for the backups to run (by default backups run at midnight). Then click OK. You now have a functional LDAP service. To create Groups, click on the Group in the left sidebar.
Here, you can easily create groups by clicking on the Create button. At the wizard, provide a group name and then enter the name of a group (accounting in this example).
Click Next, then Apply to finish creating the group. One you have created your groups, click on User to start entering your users. Click Create. At the User Information screen, enter the name, a description if needed, and the password for a user. You can also restrict password changes and set an expiration for accounts. Click Next to create the user.
At the next screen, choose what groups the new user will be in and click Next.
Enter any extended attributes at the next screen, if you so choose (useful for directories).
Click Next and then Apply.
For smaller workgroups, you now have a functional LDAP service! If you’d like a nice gui to access more options, look at FUM (
https://github.com/futurice/futurice-ldap-user-manager ), LAM ( https://www.ldap-account-manager.org/lamcms/ ), LinID ( http://www.linid.org/welcome/index.html )or other tools. I wrote an article on LDAP SACLs awhile back, so I’ll try and track that down and update it for Synology soon!
krypted April 5th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X Server, Synology
Apple, MAC, macos, macos server, migrate, move open directory to openldap, OpenLDAP, SACL, setup, users
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Don’t let the name fool you, RADIUS, or Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service is more widely used today than ever before. This protocol enables remote access to servers and networks and is frequently a fundamental building block of VPNs, wireless networks and other high-security services that have nothing to do with dialup bulletin boards from the 80s.
I’ve run RADIUS services on Mac servers for years. But as that code starts to become stale and no longer supported, let’s look at running a basic RADIUS service on a network appliance, such as a Synology. To get started, open Package Manager, click All in the sidebar and then search for RADIUS.
Click Install for the RADIUS service.
Once installed, open RADIUS Server from the application menu in the upper left hand corner of the screen.
The options aren’t like raccoon. You can select a port, choose a directory service (which covers the authentication and a bit of the authorization portions of RADIUS. Click Clients and then Add.
Here you can configure a shared secret for a client, and allow for the source IP and netmask. To grab your certificate for deployment to clients, open the Control Panel, then Security, then Certificate and export the .p12. If you’re using this RADIUS service to enable other services for Macs, you’ll likely then want to distribute that certificate in a profile. We’ll cover how to leverage RADIUS for other services in other articles.
krypted March 31st, 2018
Posted In: Synology
Apple, MAC, p12, Radius, Synology
Web services was always easy to install on macOS Server and it’s no different on a Synology. To do so, open Package Manager from the home screen.
Click All in the sidebar and enter web into the search box.
Click Web Station.
Click Install. This installs a few dependencies. Click Open once the install is finished.
Click General Settings. Note that the default web server is Nginx. You can install Apache and then Apache will be available in the HTTP back-end server list. If you’ll be using a different service (Apache) then do the switch before you proceed.
Otherwise (or after you switch to Apache), click on Virtual Host.
Click on Create.
Click into the hostname field and provide the name of the site. The ports can stay as are unless you’d like to customize the port that a site runs on. Then select a document root. This is where you’ll place your index.html or index.php file that sits at the root of a site.
Select the back-end server (e.g. Nginx or Apache 2.4) and then the PHP Profile (I usually stick with the default profile unless I’m using a method in PHP that’s unsupported in 7.x).
Click OK. And that’s it. Put your web directory into the document root, and viola – you have a new web server.
krypted March 30th, 2018
Posted In: Synology
Apache, configure, nxginx, Synology, web server
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Earlier, I wrote an article on how to export data from the macOS Wiki Service
. But now that you have your data in a file, where are you going to import it into. Well, you could do some kind of custom hosting service. Or if you want to run your own server, you could use a Synology. Synology makes installing WordPress a snap. To get started, first open Package Manager. From Package Manager, search for WordPress.
Click Yes to install the dependencies.
Enter a username and password to pass to Maria DB (root with a blank password).
Enter a username and password for the wordpress database and click Next.
Click Open under WordPress.
Select a language for WordPress to use.
Set the title of blog, provide a username and password to log in and make new articles, provide an email address, and select whether your site will be indexed by search engines and then click Install WordPress.
Click Log In. You’ll then be placed into the main WordPress screen. Bookmark this page, but you can get back any time by visiting <IPADDRESS>/wp-admin or <IPADDRESS>/wp-login where <IPADDRESS> is the address or hostname of the server.
If you’re migrating from macOS Server, you can then import your database into WordPress. To do so, log into WordPress and hover over Tools, clicking Import.
At the Import screen, select Run Importer under WordPress as the format to import from.
At the Importer screen, select the database you exported from the macOS Server wiki export article
Click “Upload file and import”. Now that you have data in WordPress, let’s do the fun part. Hover over Appearance in the left sidebar and click on Themes. Then, find a theme that best suits your needs using the Search box!
krypted March 29th, 2018
Posted In: Mac OS X Server, Microsoft Exchange Server, Synology, WordPress
Install wordpress on synology