krypted.com

Tiny Deathstars of Foulness

Awhile back, I wrote a tool to rewrap ipa files that I called ipasign: https://github.com/krypted/ipasign/blob/master/ipasign.py. But I wanted to do something similar for the Mac, and specifically have it run in Linux. So looking at what you’d need to be able to do, let’s start with viewing the contents of a flattened Apple package. This command will show you the files installed as a part of the Node JS package. Why did I choose that package? It was sitting on my desktop…

pkgutil --files org.nodejs.node.pkg

Now, this logic is available because you’re running pkgutil on a Mac. But that can’t run in Linux. So what would you do if you wanted to complete that same operation? If the package hasn’t been flattened then you can simply traverse the files in the package. If it has been flattened (and it must be in order to properly be signed) then that can’t work. So to see the files installed from a Linux system will require a tad bit more work. First, we’ll create a directly to extract our package into:

mkdir node-v8.11.1.pkg

Then cd into that directory and use xar to extract the package:

xar -xf /Users/charles.edge/Downloads/node-v8.11.1.pkg

In there, you’ll see three files: Bom, PackageInfo, and Payload. The contents, which mimic the –files option to some extent are found by first changing the name of payload to Payload.gz:

mv ./node-v8.11.1.pkg/Payload ./node-v8.11.1.pkg/Payload.gz

Then unzipping it:

gunzip Payload

And viewing the contents:

cpio -iv < Payload

Or throw all that into a one-liner:

cpio -o | gzip -c > Payload

You can also use bomutils to traverse and make BOMs: http://bomutils.dyndns.org/tutorial.html

You can also see some metadata about how the package will lay down by catting the distribution file:

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”utf-8″ standalone=”yes”?>
<installer-gui-script minSpecVersion=”1″>
<title>Node.js</title>
<welcome file=”welcome.html”/>
<conclusion file=”conclusion.html”/>
<background alignment=”topleft” file=”osx_installer_logo.png”/>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.node.pkg” auth=”root”>
<bundle-version/>
</pkg-ref>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.npm.pkg” auth=”root”>
<bundle-version/>
</pkg-ref>
<options customize=”allow” require-scripts=”false”/>
<license file=”license.rtf”/>
<choices-outline>
<line choice=”org.nodejs.node.pkg”/>
<line choice=”org.nodejs.npm.pkg”/>
</choices-outline>
<choice id=”org.nodejs.node.pkg” visible=”true” title=”Node.js v8.11.1″>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.node.pkg”/>
</choice>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.node.pkg” version=”v8.11.1″ onConclusion=”none” installKBytes=”37377″>#node-v8.11.1.pkg</pkg-ref>
<choice id=”org.nodejs.npm.pkg” visible=”true” title=”npm v5.6.0″>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.npm.pkg”/>
</choice>
<pkg-ref id=”org.nodejs.npm.pkg” version=”v5.6.0″ onConclusion=”none” installKBytes=”20113″>#npm-v5.6.0.pkg</pkg-ref>

If you want to make a package, check out this gist: https://gist.github.com/SchizoDuckie/2a1a1cc71284e6463b9a.

Next up, you frequently want to check the signature of a package. So to see the signature, I can simply use: pkgutil if on a Mac:

pkgutil --check-signature org.nodejs.node.pkg

Or I can use codesign:

codesign -v node-v8.11.1.pkg

The beauty of codesign is that it’s been open sourced by Apple. The bummer about codesign is that it uses multiple CoreFoundation frameworks:

otool -L /usr/bin/codesign

/usr/bin/codesign:

/System/Library/Frameworks/CoreFoundation.framework/Versions/A/CoreFoundation (compatibility version 150.0.0, current version 1452.23.0)

/System/Library/Frameworks/Security.framework/Versions/A/Security (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 58286.51.6)

/usr/lib/libc++.1.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 400.9.0)

/usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1252.50.4)

April 24th, 2018

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , , , , ,

Apple has published a new page that goes through all of the settings and commands available via MDM and explains many in much more detail. This is available at http://help.apple.com/deployment/mdm/. The new guide is a great addition to the work @Mosen has done at https://mosen.github.io/profiledocs/ in terms of explaining what each setting, command, and payload do. And let’s not forget the definitive MDM protocol reference guide, available at https://developer.apple.com/library/content/documentation/Miscellaneous/Reference/MobileDeviceManagementProtocolRef/1-Introduction/Introduction.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40017387-CH1-SW1

Overall, I’m excited to see so much information now available about MDM, including how to develop an MDM properly, what each setting does, and now what you should expect out of an MDM!

March 28th, 2018

Posted In: iPhone, Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

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Autopkgr is basically a small app that allows you to select some repositories of recipes and then watch and run them when they update. It’s a 5 minute or less installation, and at its simplest will put software packages into a folder of your choosing so you can test/upload/scope to users. Or you can integrate it with 3rd party tools like Munki, FileWave, or Jamf using the JSSImporter. Then if you exceed what it can do you can also dig under the hood and use Autopkg itself. It’s an app, and so it needs to run on a Mac. Preferably one that doesn’t do much else. 


Installing Autopkgr

You can obtain the latest release of Autopkgr at https://github.com/lindegroup/autopkgr. To install, drag the app to the Applications folder. 

When you open AutoPkgr for the first time, you’ll prompted for the user name and password to install the helper tool (think menu item). 

The menu item then looks like the following.

These are the most common tasks that administrators would run routinely. They involve checking Autopkg recipes to see if there are new versions of supported software titles, primarily. Opening the Autopkgr app once installed, though, shows us much more. Let’s go through this screen-by-screen in the following sections.


Moving AutoPkg Folders Around 

By default, when installed with Autopkgr, Autopkg stores its cache in ~/Library/AutoPkg/Cache and the repos are sync’d to ~/Library/AutoPkg/RecipeRepos. You can move these using the Choose… button in the Folders & Integration tab of Autopkgr, although it’s not necessary (unless, for example, you need to move the folders to another volume). 

Note: You can also click on the Configure AutoPkg button to add proxies, pre/post processing scripts, and GitHub tokens if needed. 


Keeping Autopkg and Git up-to-date

The Install tab is used to configure AutoPkg settings. If there is a new version of AutoPkg and Git, you’ll see an Install button for each (used to obtain the latest and greatest scripts); otherwise you’ll see a green button indicating it’s up-to-date. 

You can also configure AutoPkgr to be in your startup items by choosing to have it be available at login, and show/hide the Autopkgr menu item and Dock item. 


Configuring Repositories and Recipes

Repositories are where collections of recipes live. Recipes are how they’re built. Think of a recipe as a script that checks for a software update and then follows a known-good way of building that package. Recipes can then be shared (via GitHub) and consumed en masse. 

To configure a repository, click on the “Repos & Recipes” tab in Autopkgr. Then select the repos to use (they are sorted by stars so the most popular appear first). 

Note: There are specific recipes for Jamf Pro at https://github.com/autopkg/jss-recipes.git.

Then you’ll see a list of the recipes (which again, will make packages) that AutoPkgr has access to. Check the ones you want to build and click on the Run Recipes Now. 

If you don’t see a recipe for a title you need, use the search box at the bottom of the screen. That would show you a given entry for any repos that you’ve added. Again, all of the sharing of these repos typically happens through GitHub, but you can add any git url (e.g. if you wanted a repo of recipes in your organization. 

Once you’ve checked the boxes for all the recipes you want to automate, you can then use the “Run AutoPkg Now” option in the menu items to build, or rely on a routine run, as described in the next section.


Scheduling Routine Builds

Autopkgr can schedule a routine run to check recipes. This is often done at night after administrators leave the office. To configure, click on the schedule tab and then check the box for Enable scheduled AutoPkg runs. You can also choose to update your recipes from the repos by checking the “Update all recipes before each AutoPkg run” checkbox.


Getting Notified About New Updates To Packages

I know this sounds crazy. But people like to get notified when there’s a new thing showing up. To configure a variety of notification mechanisms, click on the Notifications tab in AutoPkgr.

Here, you can configure alerts via email, Slack, HipChat, macOS Notification Center, or via custom webhooks.


Integrating Autopkg with Jamf (and other supported vendors)

When integrating with another tool, you’ll need to first install the integration. To configure the JSSImporter, we’ll open the “Folders & Integrations” tab in Autopkgr and then click on the Install JSSImporter button.

Once installed, configure the URL, username and password (for Customer API access) and configure any distribution points that need to have the resultant packages copied to. 


Once the JSSImporter is configured, software should show up in Jamf Pro scoped to a new group upon each build.  It is then up to the Jamf Administrator to complete the scoping tasks so software shows up on end user devices.


What the JSSImporter Does from Autopkg

This option doesn’t seem to work at this time. Using the following may make it work:

sudo easy_install pip && pip install -I --user pyopenssl

Note: The above command may error if you’re using macOS Server. If so, call easy_install directly via 

/System/Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions/2.7/Extras/lib/python/easy_install.py.

February 9th, 2018

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , ,

You know how when you buy apps at home, they show up on your computer at work, if you’re using the same iCloud account for the app store in both locations? Some companies want to disable that. To do so, send a ConfigDataInstall key into com.apple.softwareupdate, which can most easily be done with the defaults command:

sudo defaults write com.apple.SoftwareUpdate ConfigDataInstall -int 0

Or to turn it back on:

sudo defaults write com.apple.SoftwareUpdate ConfigDataInstall -int 1

January 2nd, 2018

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mass Deployment

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macOS 10.13 brings changes to sysadminctl. You know those dscl scripts we used to use to create users? No longer supposed to be necessary (luckily they do still work). Now you can create a user with a one-liner, and do other forms of user management, such as enabling FileVault for a given user, or managing the guest accounts. However, you can’t do these tasks as root or via sudo. You have to do so with other admin accounts per Apple kbase HT208171 (in fact, this article has been in my queue waiting for that issue to be fixed – but keep in mind I’m not prefacing these with sudo in the below commands). In the below command, we’ll pass the -addUser option and then use -fullName to fill in the displayed name of the user, -password to send a password to the account and -hint so we can get a password hint into that attribute:

sysadminctl -addUser krypted2 -fullName "Charles Edge" -password testinguser -hint hi

The result would be as follows:

No clear text password or interactive option was specified (adduser, change/reset password will not allow user to use FDE) !
Creating user record…
Assigning UID: 503
Creating home directory at /Users/krypted2


Notice that in the above, the system automatically selected a home directory and UID. We could have passed those as well, using Now let’s use dscl to view the user we just created:

dscl . -read /Users/krypted2

Here’s a snippet of the dscl output:

NFSHomeDirectory: /Users/krypted2
Password: ********
Picture: /Library/User Pictures/Fun/Ying-Yang.png
PrimaryGroupID: 20
RealName: Charles Edge
RecordName: krypted2
RecordType: dsRecTypeStandard:Users
UniqueID: 503
UserShell: /bin/bash


Notice that the above is not the whole record you’d typically find with dscl. But if it were, you would not have the AuthenticationAuthority attribute. To see if it can unlock FileVault we can use the -secureTokenStatus operator built into sysadminctl. Simply pass the RecordName and you’ll get an indication if it’s on or off:

sysadminctl -secureTokenStatus krypted2

The response should be as follows:

Secure token is ENABLED for user Charles Edge

To just get the ENABLED response we’ll just use awk to grab that position (also note that we have to redirect stderr to stdout):

sysadminctl -secureTokenStatus charles.edge 2>&1 | awk '{print$7}'

We could append the AuthenticationAuthority attribute with dscl, as we would need a SecureToken. To get a SecureToken, we’ll use the -secureTokenOn verb:

sysadminctl -secureTokenOn krypted mysupersecretpassword

To disable, we’ll use -secureTokenOff

sysadminctl -secureTokenOff krypted mysupersecretpassword

Given that we like to rotate management passwords, we can do so using-resetPasswordFor which takes a username and a password as -newPassword and -passwordHint respectively:

sysadminctl -resetPasswordFor krypted -newPassword newsupersecretpassword -passwordHint "That was then this is now"

Note: In the above, we quoted the hint, which is supplied using the -passwordHint option. If it was one word we wouldn’t have needed to do so. 

Next, let’s check guest access. You can have guest enabled for logging in, afp, or smb. To check if guest is enabled for one of these use the -guestAccount, -afpGuestAccess, or -smbGuestAccess options. Each has an on, off, and status verb that can be used to manage that account type. So for example, if you wanted to check the status of the guest account, you could use -guestAccount as follows (also note that we have to redirect stderr to stdout):

sysadminctl -guestAccount status 2>&1 | awk '{print$5}'

To then disable if it isn’t already disabled:

sysadminctl -guestAccount Off

You can also use sysadminctl to do a quick check of the encryption state of the boot volume using the -filesystem option (although there’s no on and off verb for this option just yet):

bash-3.2# sysadminctl -filesystem status

2017-12-07 10:37:26.401 sysadminctl[8534:466661] Boot volume CS FDE: NO

2017-12-07 10:37:26.434 sysadminctl[8534:466661] Boot volume APFS FDE: YES

The help page is as follows:

Usage: sysadminctl [[interactive] || [-adminUser -adminPassword ]] -deleteUser [-secure || -keepHome] -newPassword -oldPassword [-passwordHint ] -resetPasswordFor -newPassword [-passwordHint ] -addUser [-fullName ] [-UID ] [-shell ] [-password ] [-hint ] [-home ] [-admin] [-picture ] -secureTokenStatus -secureTokenOn -password -secureTokenOff -password -guestAccount -afpGuestAccess -smbGuestAccess -automaticTime -filesystem status Pass '-' instead of password in commands above to request prompt.

Why should you switch to sysadminctl for scripts? Entitlements and I’m sure this is how mdmclient will pass management commands in the future… Why should you not? You can’t run most of it as root…

December 7th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , ,

I’d written an efi version checker. But the lovely Andrew Seago texted me one that’s better than mine. So I present it here: current_efi_version=`/usr/libexec/efiupdater | grep "Raw" | cut -d ':' -f2 | sed 's/ //'`
echo "current_efi_version $current_efi_version"
latest_efi_version=`ls -La /usr/libexec/firmwarecheckers/eficheck/EFIAllowListShipping.bundle/allowlists/ | grep "$current_efi_version"`
echo "latest_efi_version $latest_efi_version"
if [ "$latest_efi_version" == "" ]; then
echo "EFI FAILED"
exit 1
else
echo "EFI PASSED"
exit 0
fi

November 2nd, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment, Uncategorized

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The first thing you’ll want to do on any server is setup the networking for the computer. To do this, open the System Preferences and click on Network. You usually want to use a wired Ethernet connection on a server, but in this case we’ll be using Wi-Fi. Here, click on the Wi-Fi interface and then click on the Advanced… button.

At the setup screen for the interface, provide a good static IP address. Your network administrator can provide this fairly easily. Here, make sure you have an IP address and a subnet mask. Since we need to install the Server app from the Mac App Store, and that’s on the Internet, you’ll also need to include a gateway, which provides access to the Internet and using the DNS tab, the name servers for your Internet Service Provider (ISP).
 
Once you have provided a static IP address, verify that you can route to the Internet (e.g. open Safari and visit a website). Provided you can, the first step to installing macOS Server onto High Sierra is to download the Server app from the Mac App Store. To do so, open the App Store app and search for Server. In the available apps, you’ll see the Server app from Apple. Here, click on Buy and let the app download. That was pretty easy, right. Well, the fun has just gotten started. Next, open the app.

When you first open the Server app, you’ll see the Server screen. Here, you can click on the following options:
  • Other Mac: Shows a list of Macs with the Server app that can be remotely configured. Choosing another system does not complete the setup process on the system you’re working on at the moment.
  • Cancel: Stops the Server app setup assistant and closes the Server App.
  • Continue: Continues installing the Server app on the computer you are using.
  • Help: Brings up the macOS Server manual.
 

Click Continue to setup macOS Server on the machine you’re currently using. You’ll then be prompted for the licensing agreement from Apple. Here, check the box to “Use Apple services to determine this server’s Internet reachability” and click on Agree (assuming of course that you agree to Apple’s terms in the license agreement).

Installing macOS Server must be done with elevated privileges. At the prompt, enter the credentials for an account with administrative access and click on the Allow button.

The services are then configured as needed and the command line tools are made accessible. This can take some time, so be patient. When the app is finished with the automation portion of the configuration, you will be placed into the Server app for the first time. Your first order of business is to make sure that the host names are good on the computer. Here, first check the Host Name. If the name doesn’t resolve properly (forward and reverse) then you will likely have problems with the server at some point. Therefore, go ahead and click on Edit Host Name… Here, enter the fully qualified address that the server should have. In the DNS article, we’ll look at configuring a good DNS server, but for now, keep in mind that you’ll want your DNS record that points to the server to match what you enter here. And users will use this address to access your server, so use something that is easy to communicate verbally, when needed.

 
At the Change Host Name screen, click Next. At the “Accessing your Server” screen, click on Internet and then click on the Next button.



At the “Connecting to your Server” screen, provide the Computer Name and the Host Name. The Computer Name is what you will see when you connect to the server over Bonjour and what will be listed in the Sharing System Preference pane. The Host Name is the fully qualified host name (fqdn) of the computer. I usually like to take the computer name and put it in front of the domain name. For example, in the following screen, I have osxserver as the name of the computer and osxserver.krypted.com as the host name.



Once you have entered the names, click on the Finish button. You are then prompted to Change Host Name. Click on Change Host Name at this screen.

Next, let’s open Terminal and run changeip with the -checkhostname option, to verify that the IP and hostname match:

sudo changeip -checkhostname


Provided that the IP address and hostname match, you’ll see the following response.

sudirserv:success = “success”

If the IP address and hostname do not match, then you might want to consider enabling the DNS server and configuring a record for the server. But at this point, you’ve finished setting up the initial server and are ready to start configuring whatever options you will need on the server.

September 28th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , , , ,

In order to use the Apple Volume Purchase Program (VPP), you will need an MDM solution (Profile Manager, Jamf Pro, MobileIron, Meraki, FileWave, etc). The same program is used for device-based VPP or user-based VPP. There are two programs, which is meant to simplify the experience of setting up an MDM solution and long-term maintenance. The first is the traditional VPP account, available to companies and other non-educational environments that have a DUNS number. The second is the newer Apple School Manager, for educational institutions.

Before starting to buy apps and associating those apps from an MDM solution, there are a few things you should know. The first is that your organization can have multiple VPP tokens or Apple School Manager tokens, and you can hierarchically manage apps this way. The second is that each token should only be installed on one MDM solution or server (if you have multiple instances of the same solution). Therefore, if you’re going to have multiple servers or solutions for managing apps, keep in mind to buy apps for groups based on the VPP account that will be associated with devices for each solution. Also, note that the traditional deployment mechanism of VPP is user, or Apple ID-based VPP apps. Here, you associate an Apple ID to a VPP account from an MDM and then the administrator sends apps to devices based via the MDM solution. And this is still an option.

In 10.11 and up, we got device-based VPP. Here, you can send apps to devices even if they don’t have Apple IDs associated to the device, and you can send apps automatically, meaning they will not require user interaction. This makes VPP multi-tenant and great for school labs, or shared-use Macs and iOS devices. But this article isn’t about the fine print details of the new VPP. Instead, this article is about making Profile Manager work with your new VPP token. Before you get started, know that when you install your vpptoken, if it’s in use by another MDM, Profile Manager will unlicensed all apps with your other MDM. To get started, log into your VPP account. Once logged in, click on your account email address and then select Account Summary.
vpp1

Then, click on the Download Token link and your token will be downloaded to your ~/Downloads (or wherever you download stuff).

vpp2
Once you have your token, open the Server app and click on the Profile Manager service.

 

Click on the checkbox for Volume Purchase Program.

 

At the VPP Managed Distribution screen, drag the .vpptoken file downloaded earlier into the screen. Then click on Continue. The VPP code email address will appear in the screen. Click Done. Back at the profile manager screen, you should then see that the checkbox is filled and you can now setup Profile Manager. The rest of the configuration of Profile Manager is covered in a previous article. Note: The account used to configure the VPP information is not tracked in any serveradmin settings.

September 28th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , , ,

The latest version of the Apple Server app is out (macOS Server 5.4), and before you upgrade, there are a few points to review:
  • As always, make a clone of your computer before upgrading.
  • During the upgrade to High Sierra, if the operating system is running on a solid state drive, the drive will automatically upgrade to APFS. You cannot share APFS volumes over AFP, so if you’re running file services, make sure you’re aware of that. You can choose not to upgrade to APFS using the command line to upgrade a server. Even though the file sharing services are not in the Server app, you can still configure ACLs using the Storage tab under the server’s main screen.
  • The FTP Service is gone.
  • Time Machine service is gone, so if you were relying on that, rethink your backup strategy. Some options:
    • A third party backup tool.
    • A share that Time Machine on client systems can backup to.
    • Don’t upgrade.
  • Xcode Server is gone. You can still leverage third party tools to get build automations in place, but this is no longer a built-in component of macOS Server. 
  • Imaging is dead. But NetInstall still works. Because you need to run a firmware update for High Sierra (and APFS), there are caveats to imaging. You can run a NetInstall to install High Sierra onto clients (which does the firmware update). You can do a NetRestore (and Define NetRestore Sources for NetBoot) from a volume that’s already been converted to APFS to another volume that’s already been converted to APFS. But you can’t NetRestore an HFS+ volume onto an APFS volume or High Sierra on APFS onto a volume running HFS+. Long live DEP.
  • If you’re running Calendar, Contacts, and/or Mail, then you should consider moving to Google Apps or Office 365.
  • Running the Wiki service configures passwords to use a less secure way of storing passwords.
  • Alerts, Certificates, Logs, Stats, creating users, Calendar, Contacts, Mail, Messages, VPN, Websites, Wiki, DHCP, DNS, and Xsan haven’t changed in forevers, and remain pretty static in this version.
  • Open Directory and Software Update aren’t in the Services or Advanced area of the Server sidebar. You’ll access those through the View menu. The slapconfig and other binaries that comprise OD remain pretty much untouched where they are.
  • If you’re running software like anti-virus that has Kernel Extensions, those should work upon upgrade (provided they’re High Sierra compatible). If you reinstall software with Kernel Extensions, you may have to accept the installation of the Kernel Extension, due to a new and more secure way of interacting with Kernel Extensions.
  • There are new options in Profile Manager. 
Provided that you’re ok with all this, we can proceed with the upgrade!

September 26th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mac Security, Mass Deployment

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

By default, screenshots are pretty big on a retina display on a High Sierra machine. Like about 4 times the size they should be. I haven’t found a defaults key I can use yet to reduce them, so I’ve been using this little screenshotting app called RetinaCapture, available at https://gumroad.com/l/retinacapture. Basically, when you’re running it, you just open it up and click on the Window button. There, you can select a window to screenshot.
Screen Shot 2015-09-24 at 8.37.33 AM
Once you’ve selected the window, you’ll be prompted to save it somewhere with a name.

Screen Shot 2015-09-24 at 8.38.00 AM

I don’t love having to use any 3rd party apps for my screenshotting workflow. In fact, it bugs the crap out of me. Screens get resized by publishers for books and so I’m really only using this for my site. But, hopefully it helps someone else along the way. Happy screenshotting!

September 8th, 2017

Posted In: Mac OS X, Mass Deployment

Tags: , ,

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